The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome

Mark T. Ross, Darren V. Grafham, Alison J. Coffey, Steven Scherer, Kirsten McLay, Donna Muzny, Matthias Platzer, Gareth R. Howell, Christine Burrows, Christine P. Bird, Adam Prankish, Frances L. Lovell, Kevin L. Howe, Jennifer L. Ashurst, Robert S. Fulton, Ralf Sudbrak, Gaiping Wen, Matthew C. Jones, Matthew E. Hurles, T. Daniel AndrewsCarol E. Scott, Stephen Searle, Juliane Ramser, Adam Whittaker, Rebecca Deadman, Nigel P. Carter, Sarah E. Hunt, Rui Chen, Andrew Cree, Preethi Gunaratne, Paul Havlak, Anne Hodgson, Michael L. Metzker, Stephen Richards, Graham Scott, David Steffen, Erica Sodergren, David A. Wheeler, Kim C. Worley, Rachael Alnscough, Kerrie D. Ambrose, M. Ali Ansari-Lari, Swaroop Aradhya, Robert I S Ashwell, Anne K. Babbage, Claire L. Bagguley, Andrea Ballabio, Ruby Banerjee, Gary E. Barker, Karen F. Barlow, Ian P. Barrett, Karen N. Bates, David M. Beare, Helen Beasley, Oliver Beasley, Alfred Beck, Graeme Bethel, Karin Blechschmidt, Nicola Brady, Sarah Bray-Allen, Anne M. Bridgeman, Andrew J. Brown, Mary J. Brown, David Bonnin, Elspeth A. Bruford, Christian Buhay, Paula Burch, Deborah Burford, Joanne Burgess, Wayne Burrill, John Burton, Jackie M. Bye, Carol Carder, Laura Carrel, Joseph Chako, Joanne C. Chapman, Dean Chavez, Ellson Chen, Guan Chen, Yuan Chen, Zhijian Chen, Craig Chinault, Alfredo Ciccodicola, Sue Y. Clark, Graham Clarke, Chris M. Clee, Sheila Clegg, Kerstin Clerc-Blankenburg, Karen Clifford, Vicky Cobley, Charlotte G. Cole, Jen S. Conquer, Nicole Corby, Richard E. Connor, Robert David, Joy Davies, Clay Davis, John Davis, Oliver Delgado, Denise DeShazo, Pawandeep Dhami, Yan Ding, Huyen Dinh, Steve Dodsworth, Heather Draper, Shannon Dugan-Rocha, Andrew Dunham, Matthew Dunn, K. James Durbin, Ireena Dutta, Tamsin Eades, Matthew Ellwood, Alexandra Emery-Cohen, Helen Errington, Kathryn L. Evans, Louisa Faulkner, Fiona Francis, John Frankland, Audrey E. Fraser, Petra Galgoczy, James Gilbert, Rachel Gill, Gernot Glöckner, Simon G. Gregory, Susan Gribble, Coline Griffiths, Russell Grocock, Yanghong Gu, Rhian Gwilliam, Cerissa Hamilton, Elizabeth A. Hart, Alicia Hawes, Paul D. Heath, Katja Heitmann, Steffen Hennig, Judith Hernandez, Bernd Hinzmann, Sarah Ho, Michael Hoffs, Phillip J. Howden, Elizabeth J. Huckle, Jennifer Hume, Paul J. Hunt, Adrienne R. Hunt, Judith Isherwood, Leni Jacob, David Johnson, Sally Jones, Pieter J. De Jong, Shirin S. Joseph, Stephen Keenan, Susan Kelly, Joanne K. Kershaw, Ziad Khan, Petra Kloschis, Sven Klages, Andrew J. Knights, Anna Kosiura, Christie Kovar-Smith, Gavin K. Laird, Cordelia Langford, Stephanie Lawlor, Margaret Leversha, Lora Lewis, Wen Liu, Christine Lloyd, David M. Lloyd, Hermela Loulseged, Jane E. Loveland, Jamieson D. Lovell, Ryan Lozado, Jing Lu, Rachael Lyne, Jie Ma, Manjula Maheshwari, Lucy H. Matthews, Jennifer McDowall, Stuart McLaren, Amanda McMurray, Patrick Meidl, Thomas Meitinger, Sarah Milne, George Miner, Shailesh L. Mistry, Margaret Morgan, Sidney Morris, Ines Müller, James C. Mullikin, Ngoc Nguyen, Gabriele Nordsiek, Gerald Nyakatura, Christopher N. O'Dell, Geoffery Okwuonu, Sophie Palmer, Richard Pandian, David Parker, Julia Parrish, Shiran Pasternak, Dina Patel, Alex V. Pearce, Danita M. Pearson, Sarah E. Pelan, Lesette Perez, Keith M. Porter, Yvonne Ramsey, Kathrin Reichwald, Susan Rhodes, Kerry A. Ridler, David Schlessinger, Mary G. Schueler, Harminder K. Sehra, Charles Shaw-Smith, Hua Shen, Elizabeth M. Sheridan, Ratna Shownkeen, Carl D. Skuce, Michelle L. Smith, Elizabeth C. Sotheran, Helen E. Steingruber, Charles A. Steward, Roy Storey, R. Mark Swann, David Swarbreck, Paul E. Tabor, Stefan Taudien, Tineace Taylor, Brian Teague, Karen Thomas, Andrea Thorpe, Kirsten Timms, Alan Tracey, Steve Trevanion, Anthony C. Tromans, Michele D'Urso, Daniel Verduzco, Donna Villasana, Lenee Waldron, Melanie Wall, Qiaoyan Wang, James Warren, Georgina L. Warry, Xuehong Wei, Anthony West, Siobhan L. Whitehead, Mathew N. Whiteley, Jane E. Wilkinson, David L. Willey, Gabrielle Williams, Leanne Williams, Angela Williamson, Helen Williamson, Laurens Wilming, Rebecca L. Woodmansey, Paul W. Wray, Jennifer Yen, Jingkun Zhang, Jianling Zhou, Huda Zoghbi, Sara Zorilla, David Buck, Richard Reinhardt, Annemarie Poustka, André Rosenthal, Hans Lehrach, Alfons Meindl, Patrick J. Minx, LaDeana W. Hillier, Huntington F. Willard, Richard K. Wilson, Robert H. Waterston, Catherine M. Rice, Mark Vaudin, Alan Coulson, David L. Nelson, George Weinstock, John E. Sulston, Richard Durbin, Tim Hubbard, Richard A. Gibbs, Stephan Beck, Jane Rogers, David R. Bentley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

The human X chromosome has a unique biology that was shaped by its evolution as the sex chromosome shared by males and females. We have determined 99.3% of the euchromatic sequence of the X chromosome. Our analysis illustrates the autosomal origin of the mammalian sex chromosomes, the stepwise process that led to the progressive loss of recombination between X and Y, and the extent of subsequent degradation of the Y chromosome. LINE1 repeat elements cover one-third of the X chromosome, with a distribution that is consistent with their proposed role as way stations in the process of X-chromosome inactivation. We found 1,098 genes in the sequence, of which 99 encode proteins expressed in testis and in various tumour types. A disproportionately high number of mendelian diseases are documented for the X chromosome. Of this number, 168 have been explained by mutations in 113 X-linked genes, which in many cases were characterized with the aid of the DNA sequence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)325-337
Number of pages13
JournalNature
Volume434
Issue number7031
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 17 2005

ASJC Scopus subject areas

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    Ross, M. T., Grafham, D. V., Coffey, A. J., Scherer, S., McLay, K., Muzny, D., Platzer, M., Howell, G. R., Burrows, C., Bird, C. P., Prankish, A., Lovell, F. L., Howe, K. L., Ashurst, J. L., Fulton, R. S., Sudbrak, R., Wen, G., Jones, M. C., Hurles, M. E., ... Bentley, D. R. (2005). The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome. Nature, 434(7031), 325-337. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature03440