Expression of the ectoenzyme γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) is regulated on T lymphocytes. It is present at a low level on naive T cells, at a high level on activated T cells, and at an intermediate level on resting memory T cells. GGT cleaves the glutamyl group from glutathione, which is the first step in the uptake of extracellular glutathione. In vitro, purified GGT also metabolizes the naturally occurring nitrosothiol, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). Because of this relationship, the effects of cellular GGT on the metabolism of and cellular response to GSNO were tested. The GGT-negative lymphoblasts Ramos and SupT1 were transfected with cDNA for human GGT. In the presence of cells lacking GGT, GSNO is extremely stable. In contrast, GGT- expressing cells rapidly metabolize GSNO leading to nitric oxide release. The nitric oxide causes a rapid (< 2-h) inhibition of DNA synthesis. There is a concomitant decrease in the concentration of intracellular deoxyribonucleotides, suggesting that one effect of the nitric oxide generated from GSNO is the previously described inactivation of the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase. GSNO also caused a rapid, GGT-dependent cytostatic effect in Hut-78, a human T cell lymphoma, as well as in activated peripheral blood T cells. Although DNA synthesis was decreased to 16% of control values in anti-CD3-stimulated Hut-78, the production of IL-2 was unchanged by GSNO. These data show that GGT, a regulated ectoenzyme on T cells, controls the rate of nitric oxide production from GSNO and thus markedly affects the physiological response to this biologically active nitrosothiol.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Journal of Immunology|
|State||Published - Aug 15 1999|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy