The effect of normoxic or hypobaric hypoxic endurance training on the hypoxic ventilatory response

B. D. Levine, D. B. Friedman, K. Engfred, B. Hanel, M. Kjaer, P. S. Clifford, N. H. Secher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

74 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Cross-sectional studies in endurance athletes have demonstrated a diminished hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) compared with mountaineers or sedentary controls. Conversely, short-term altitude acclimatization may increase the HVR. The longitudinal effect of training, either at sea level or altitude, on HVR has not been previously reported. We therefore studied 21 untrained men and women before and after 5 wk of cycle ergometer training at either sea level or 2,500 m. HVR was determined using the steady-state method (16). Minute ventilation (V̇(E)) was measured with a Tissot spirometer during the last minute of 5 min breathing room air, 8% and 12% O2, administered in random order. CO2 was added at the mouth in an effort to maintain end-tidal CO2 at baseline levels. Oxyhemoglobin saturation was measured directly from arterial blood with a hemoximeter (OSM 3). HVR was defined as the positive slope of the line relating V̇(E) to O2 saturation in l · min-1%-1. One group of subjects trained at sea level at 70% maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O(2max), N = 7). A second group trained at 2,500 m in a hypobaric chamber, at the same relative exercise intensity (i.e., 70% altitude V̇O(2max)) or same absolute intensity (same power output) as group 1 (N = 14). Both groups trained on a bicycle ergometer for 45 min · d-1, 5 d · wk-1 for 5 wk. In the sea level group, training sufficient to raise sea level V̇O(2max) from 3.00 ± 0.27 to 3.41 ± 0.27 l · min-1 (mean ± SE, P < 0.05) had no effect on HVR (0.36 ± 0.09 to 0.31 ± 0.06 l · min-1 · %-1, P = NS). In the altitude group however, a similar increase in sea level V̇O(2max) (3.05 ± 0.19 to 3.42 ± 0.20 l · min-1, P < 0.05) was accompanied by an increase in HVR from 0.29 ± 0.06 to 0.41 ± 0.08 l · min-1 · %-1 (P < 0.05). We therefore conclude that 5 wk of endurance training at sea level has no effect on HVR. However, when training occurs at altitude, HVR is increased, possibly due to increased chemoreceptor sensitivity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)769-775
Number of pages7
JournalMedicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Volume24
Issue number7
StatePublished - 1992

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Oceans and Seas
Oxyhemoglobins
Acclimatization
Athletes
Ventilation
Mouth
Respiration
Cross-Sectional Studies
Air
Exercise
Oxygen

Keywords

  • CHEMORECEPTORS
  • CHEMOSENSITIVITY
  • EXERCISE
  • HIGH ALTITUDE
  • HYPOXIC DRIVE

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Cite this

Levine, B. D., Friedman, D. B., Engfred, K., Hanel, B., Kjaer, M., Clifford, P. S., & Secher, N. H. (1992). The effect of normoxic or hypobaric hypoxic endurance training on the hypoxic ventilatory response. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 24(7), 769-775.

The effect of normoxic or hypobaric hypoxic endurance training on the hypoxic ventilatory response. / Levine, B. D.; Friedman, D. B.; Engfred, K.; Hanel, B.; Kjaer, M.; Clifford, P. S.; Secher, N. H.

In: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Vol. 24, No. 7, 1992, p. 769-775.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Levine, BD, Friedman, DB, Engfred, K, Hanel, B, Kjaer, M, Clifford, PS & Secher, NH 1992, 'The effect of normoxic or hypobaric hypoxic endurance training on the hypoxic ventilatory response', Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 769-775.
Levine, B. D. ; Friedman, D. B. ; Engfred, K. ; Hanel, B. ; Kjaer, M. ; Clifford, P. S. ; Secher, N. H. / The effect of normoxic or hypobaric hypoxic endurance training on the hypoxic ventilatory response. In: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 1992 ; Vol. 24, No. 7. pp. 769-775.
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N2 - Cross-sectional studies in endurance athletes have demonstrated a diminished hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) compared with mountaineers or sedentary controls. Conversely, short-term altitude acclimatization may increase the HVR. The longitudinal effect of training, either at sea level or altitude, on HVR has not been previously reported. We therefore studied 21 untrained men and women before and after 5 wk of cycle ergometer training at either sea level or 2,500 m. HVR was determined using the steady-state method (16). Minute ventilation (V̇(E)) was measured with a Tissot spirometer during the last minute of 5 min breathing room air, 8% and 12% O2, administered in random order. CO2 was added at the mouth in an effort to maintain end-tidal CO2 at baseline levels. Oxyhemoglobin saturation was measured directly from arterial blood with a hemoximeter (OSM 3). HVR was defined as the positive slope of the line relating V̇(E) to O2 saturation in l · min-1%-1. One group of subjects trained at sea level at 70% maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O(2max), N = 7). A second group trained at 2,500 m in a hypobaric chamber, at the same relative exercise intensity (i.e., 70% altitude V̇O(2max)) or same absolute intensity (same power output) as group 1 (N = 14). Both groups trained on a bicycle ergometer for 45 min · d-1, 5 d · wk-1 for 5 wk. In the sea level group, training sufficient to raise sea level V̇O(2max) from 3.00 ± 0.27 to 3.41 ± 0.27 l · min-1 (mean ± SE, P < 0.05) had no effect on HVR (0.36 ± 0.09 to 0.31 ± 0.06 l · min-1 · %-1, P = NS). In the altitude group however, a similar increase in sea level V̇O(2max) (3.05 ± 0.19 to 3.42 ± 0.20 l · min-1, P < 0.05) was accompanied by an increase in HVR from 0.29 ± 0.06 to 0.41 ± 0.08 l · min-1 · %-1 (P < 0.05). We therefore conclude that 5 wk of endurance training at sea level has no effect on HVR. However, when training occurs at altitude, HVR is increased, possibly due to increased chemoreceptor sensitivity.

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