The effect of rowing ergometry and resistive exercise on skeletal muscle structure and function during bed rest

Felix Krainski, Jeffrey L. Hastings, Katja Heinicke, Nadine Romain, Eric L. Pacini, Peter G. Snell, Phil Wyrick, M. Dean Palmer, Ronald G. Haller, Benjamin D. Levine

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Exposure to microgravity causes functional and structural impairment of skeletal muscle. Current exercise regimens are time-consuming and insufficiently effective; an integrated countermeasure is needed that addresses musculoskeletal along with cardiovascular health. High-intensity, short-duration rowing ergometry and supplemental resistive strength exercise may achieve these goals. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers completed 5 wk of head-down-tilt bed rest (HDBR): 18 were randomized to exercise, 9 remained sedentary. Exercise consisted of rowing ergometry 6 days/wk, including interval training, and supplemental strength training 2 days/wk. Measurements before and after HDBR and following reambulation included assessment of strength, skeletal muscle volume (MRI), and muscle metabolism (magnetic resonance spectroscopy); quadriceps muscle biopsies were obtained to assess muscle fiber types, capillarization, and oxidative capacity. Sedentary bed rest (BR) led to decreased muscle volume (quadriceps: -9 ± 4%, P < 0.001; plantar flexors: -19 ± 6%, P < 0.001). Exercise (ExBR) reduced atrophy in the quadriceps (-5 ± 4%, interaction P < 0.018) and calf muscle, although to a lesser degree (-14 ± 6%, interaction P < 0.076). Knee extensor and plantar flexor strength was impaired by BR (-14 ± 15%, P < 0.014 and -22 ± 7%, P < 0.001) but preserved by ExBR (-4 ± 13%, P < 0.238 and -13 ± 28%, P < 0.011). Metabolic capacity, as assessed by maximal O2 consumption, 31P-MRS, and oxidative chain enzyme activity, was impaired in BR but stable or improved in ExBR. Reambulation reversed the negative impact of BR. High-intensity, short-duration rowing and supplemental strength training effectively preserved skeletal muscle function and structure while partially preventing atrophy in key antigravity muscles. Due to its integrated cardiovascular benefits, rowing ergometry could be a primary component of exercise prescriptions for astronauts or patients suffering from severe deconditioning.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1569-1581
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Applied Physiology
Volume116
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 15 2014

Fingerprint

Ergometry
Bed Rest
Skeletal Muscle
Exercise
Head-Down Tilt
Muscles
Resistance Training
Quadriceps Muscle
Atrophy
Astronauts
Weightlessness
Prescriptions
Knee
Healthy Volunteers
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Biopsy
Health
Enzymes

Keywords

  • Bed rest
  • Deconditioning
  • Exercise
  • Microgravity
  • Skeletal muscle

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

The effect of rowing ergometry and resistive exercise on skeletal muscle structure and function during bed rest. / Krainski, Felix; Hastings, Jeffrey L.; Heinicke, Katja; Romain, Nadine; Pacini, Eric L.; Snell, Peter G.; Wyrick, Phil; Palmer, M. Dean; Haller, Ronald G.; Levine, Benjamin D.

In: Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 116, No. 12, 15.06.2014, p. 1569-1581.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Krainski, Felix ; Hastings, Jeffrey L. ; Heinicke, Katja ; Romain, Nadine ; Pacini, Eric L. ; Snell, Peter G. ; Wyrick, Phil ; Palmer, M. Dean ; Haller, Ronald G. ; Levine, Benjamin D. / The effect of rowing ergometry and resistive exercise on skeletal muscle structure and function during bed rest. In: Journal of Applied Physiology. 2014 ; Vol. 116, No. 12. pp. 1569-1581.
@article{018c46e9afb541b98b9e7efde7b9f614,
title = "The effect of rowing ergometry and resistive exercise on skeletal muscle structure and function during bed rest",
abstract = "Exposure to microgravity causes functional and structural impairment of skeletal muscle. Current exercise regimens are time-consuming and insufficiently effective; an integrated countermeasure is needed that addresses musculoskeletal along with cardiovascular health. High-intensity, short-duration rowing ergometry and supplemental resistive strength exercise may achieve these goals. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers completed 5 wk of head-down-tilt bed rest (HDBR): 18 were randomized to exercise, 9 remained sedentary. Exercise consisted of rowing ergometry 6 days/wk, including interval training, and supplemental strength training 2 days/wk. Measurements before and after HDBR and following reambulation included assessment of strength, skeletal muscle volume (MRI), and muscle metabolism (magnetic resonance spectroscopy); quadriceps muscle biopsies were obtained to assess muscle fiber types, capillarization, and oxidative capacity. Sedentary bed rest (BR) led to decreased muscle volume (quadriceps: -9 ± 4{\%}, P < 0.001; plantar flexors: -19 ± 6{\%}, P < 0.001). Exercise (ExBR) reduced atrophy in the quadriceps (-5 ± 4{\%}, interaction P < 0.018) and calf muscle, although to a lesser degree (-14 ± 6{\%}, interaction P < 0.076). Knee extensor and plantar flexor strength was impaired by BR (-14 ± 15{\%}, P < 0.014 and -22 ± 7{\%}, P < 0.001) but preserved by ExBR (-4 ± 13{\%}, P < 0.238 and -13 ± 28{\%}, P < 0.011). Metabolic capacity, as assessed by maximal O2 consumption, 31P-MRS, and oxidative chain enzyme activity, was impaired in BR but stable or improved in ExBR. Reambulation reversed the negative impact of BR. High-intensity, short-duration rowing and supplemental strength training effectively preserved skeletal muscle function and structure while partially preventing atrophy in key antigravity muscles. Due to its integrated cardiovascular benefits, rowing ergometry could be a primary component of exercise prescriptions for astronauts or patients suffering from severe deconditioning.",
keywords = "Bed rest, Deconditioning, Exercise, Microgravity, Skeletal muscle",
author = "Felix Krainski and Hastings, {Jeffrey L.} and Katja Heinicke and Nadine Romain and Pacini, {Eric L.} and Snell, {Peter G.} and Phil Wyrick and Palmer, {M. Dean} and Haller, {Ronald G.} and Levine, {Benjamin D.}",
year = "2014",
month = "6",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1152/japplphysiol.00803.2013",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "116",
pages = "1569--1581",
journal = "Journal of Applied Physiology",
issn = "0161-7567",
publisher = "American Physiological Society",
number = "12",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The effect of rowing ergometry and resistive exercise on skeletal muscle structure and function during bed rest

AU - Krainski, Felix

AU - Hastings, Jeffrey L.

AU - Heinicke, Katja

AU - Romain, Nadine

AU - Pacini, Eric L.

AU - Snell, Peter G.

AU - Wyrick, Phil

AU - Palmer, M. Dean

AU - Haller, Ronald G.

AU - Levine, Benjamin D.

PY - 2014/6/15

Y1 - 2014/6/15

N2 - Exposure to microgravity causes functional and structural impairment of skeletal muscle. Current exercise regimens are time-consuming and insufficiently effective; an integrated countermeasure is needed that addresses musculoskeletal along with cardiovascular health. High-intensity, short-duration rowing ergometry and supplemental resistive strength exercise may achieve these goals. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers completed 5 wk of head-down-tilt bed rest (HDBR): 18 were randomized to exercise, 9 remained sedentary. Exercise consisted of rowing ergometry 6 days/wk, including interval training, and supplemental strength training 2 days/wk. Measurements before and after HDBR and following reambulation included assessment of strength, skeletal muscle volume (MRI), and muscle metabolism (magnetic resonance spectroscopy); quadriceps muscle biopsies were obtained to assess muscle fiber types, capillarization, and oxidative capacity. Sedentary bed rest (BR) led to decreased muscle volume (quadriceps: -9 ± 4%, P < 0.001; plantar flexors: -19 ± 6%, P < 0.001). Exercise (ExBR) reduced atrophy in the quadriceps (-5 ± 4%, interaction P < 0.018) and calf muscle, although to a lesser degree (-14 ± 6%, interaction P < 0.076). Knee extensor and plantar flexor strength was impaired by BR (-14 ± 15%, P < 0.014 and -22 ± 7%, P < 0.001) but preserved by ExBR (-4 ± 13%, P < 0.238 and -13 ± 28%, P < 0.011). Metabolic capacity, as assessed by maximal O2 consumption, 31P-MRS, and oxidative chain enzyme activity, was impaired in BR but stable or improved in ExBR. Reambulation reversed the negative impact of BR. High-intensity, short-duration rowing and supplemental strength training effectively preserved skeletal muscle function and structure while partially preventing atrophy in key antigravity muscles. Due to its integrated cardiovascular benefits, rowing ergometry could be a primary component of exercise prescriptions for astronauts or patients suffering from severe deconditioning.

AB - Exposure to microgravity causes functional and structural impairment of skeletal muscle. Current exercise regimens are time-consuming and insufficiently effective; an integrated countermeasure is needed that addresses musculoskeletal along with cardiovascular health. High-intensity, short-duration rowing ergometry and supplemental resistive strength exercise may achieve these goals. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers completed 5 wk of head-down-tilt bed rest (HDBR): 18 were randomized to exercise, 9 remained sedentary. Exercise consisted of rowing ergometry 6 days/wk, including interval training, and supplemental strength training 2 days/wk. Measurements before and after HDBR and following reambulation included assessment of strength, skeletal muscle volume (MRI), and muscle metabolism (magnetic resonance spectroscopy); quadriceps muscle biopsies were obtained to assess muscle fiber types, capillarization, and oxidative capacity. Sedentary bed rest (BR) led to decreased muscle volume (quadriceps: -9 ± 4%, P < 0.001; plantar flexors: -19 ± 6%, P < 0.001). Exercise (ExBR) reduced atrophy in the quadriceps (-5 ± 4%, interaction P < 0.018) and calf muscle, although to a lesser degree (-14 ± 6%, interaction P < 0.076). Knee extensor and plantar flexor strength was impaired by BR (-14 ± 15%, P < 0.014 and -22 ± 7%, P < 0.001) but preserved by ExBR (-4 ± 13%, P < 0.238 and -13 ± 28%, P < 0.011). Metabolic capacity, as assessed by maximal O2 consumption, 31P-MRS, and oxidative chain enzyme activity, was impaired in BR but stable or improved in ExBR. Reambulation reversed the negative impact of BR. High-intensity, short-duration rowing and supplemental strength training effectively preserved skeletal muscle function and structure while partially preventing atrophy in key antigravity muscles. Due to its integrated cardiovascular benefits, rowing ergometry could be a primary component of exercise prescriptions for astronauts or patients suffering from severe deconditioning.

KW - Bed rest

KW - Deconditioning

KW - Exercise

KW - Microgravity

KW - Skeletal muscle

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84902436361&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84902436361&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1152/japplphysiol.00803.2013

DO - 10.1152/japplphysiol.00803.2013

M3 - Article

C2 - 24790012

AN - SCOPUS:84902436361

VL - 116

SP - 1569

EP - 1581

JO - Journal of Applied Physiology

JF - Journal of Applied Physiology

SN - 0161-7567

IS - 12

ER -