The effect of steaming on the free amino acid contents and antioxidant activity of Panax ginseng

Eun Jung Cho, Xiang Lan Piao, Moon Hee Jang, Seung Hoon Baek, Hyun Young Kim, Ki Sung Kang, Sung Won Kwon, Jeong Hill Park

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Abstract

This study was carried out to investigate changes in the free amino acid contents and antioxidant activity of Panax ginseng induced by steaming at different temperatures. For this purpose, white ginseng (WG), red ginseng (RG, ginseng steamed at 100 °C) and ginseng steamed at 120 °C (SG) were prepared using an autoclave. Most free amino acids were decreased significantly by steam treatment, with the greatest reduction observed in SG. Total content of free amino acids, 17.9 mg/g in WG was reduced to 12.2 mg/g in RG and 2.79 mg/g in SG. As for Arg which is the most predominant amino acid in ginseng, the content, 10.4 mg/g in WG, decreased significantly to 1.38 mg/g in SG. In particular, β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP), a well-known neurotoxin, was reduced by 92.9% in SG. In contrast, the level of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) increased with steam treatment, which indicates that the reduction of most amino acids is attributed to the extent of the Maillard reaction. Based on MRPs being useful antioxidants, we assayed the scavenging activity against free radicals produced by 2,2′-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH). The radical scavenging activity of a ginseng extract increased with steam treatment, with the most potent activity in SG. Further, MRPs-rich fraction in SG showed powerful antioxidant activity, which indicates MRPs are major contributors to antioxidant activity enhanced by steam treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)876-882
Number of pages7
JournalFood Chemistry
Volume107
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 15 2008

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Keywords

  • β-ODAP
  • Amino acid
  • Antioxidant activity
  • Maillard reaction product
  • Panax ginseng
  • Steam treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science

Cite this

Cho, E. J., Piao, X. L., Jang, M. H., Baek, S. H., Kim, H. Y., Kang, K. S., ... Park, J. H. (2008). The effect of steaming on the free amino acid contents and antioxidant activity of Panax ginseng. Food Chemistry, 107(2), 876-882. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.09.007