Real-time acoustic feedback control based on harmonic emissions of stimulated microbubbles may be important for facilitating the clinical adoption of focused ultrasound (FUS)-induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening, both to ensure safe acoustic exposures, and to achieve repeatable and consistent opening. Previously our group demonstrated that successful BBB opening was achievable with both commercially available microbubbles and custom-made nanobubbles under acoustic feedback control. In a recent study, we demonstrated the acoustic control performance was not sensitive to the nanobubble concentration within 109–1011 bubbles/ml. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of the ultrasound target location in the rat brain on the acoustic control quality during BBB opening with nanobubbles. Temporal analysis of the received acoustic signals during each ultrasound pulse indicated that stable nanobubble oscillation was present throughout the entire 10 ms ultrasound exposure. The acoustic feedback control signals were very sensitive to the brain spatial location in rats. There appears to be a shared pattern of acoustic control stability in the brain across different animals, suggesting anatomical features are an underlying cause. The findings emphasize the importance of tuning acoustic feedback control algorithms for specific rodent brain regions of interest to ensure optimal performance.
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