The effects of chenodiol on biliary lipids and their association with gallstone dissolution in the national cooperative gallstone study (NCGS)

Scott M Grundy, S. P. Lan, J. Lachin

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Abstract

The National Cooperative Gallstone Study was a double-masked trial conducted to determine the efficacy and safety of chenodeoxycholic acid (chenodiol) for dissolution of cholesterol gallstones. Patients with radiolucent gallstones were randomly allocated to either a high dose (750 mg/d, n = 305) or low dose (375 mg/d, n = 306) of chenodiol or placebo (n = 305) administered for 2 yr. Specimens of gallbladder bile were obtained for biliary lipid analysis on 50% of all white patients at base line and after 3-mo therapy, on 45% at 12 mo, and on 36% at 24 mo. Among these specimens, 20% were inadequate for analysis. For analysis of data, available values during therapy were averaged up to time of dissolution, study exit, or study termination. In the high-dose group, percent chenodiol (molar percent of all bile acids) increased markedly and remained high during the 2 yr of follow-up. Also, molar percent cholesterol decreased significantly and remained low during the 2 yr of follow-up. In the low-dose group, percent chenodiol increased and remained significantly increased. Percent cholesterol saturation decreased at 3 mo, but at 24 mo it was not different from that in the placebo group, suggesting a physiological adaptation to the low dose by 2 yr. 79% of patients on high dose had greater than 70% chenodiol. Among these, half showed unsaturated bile (<100% cholesterol saturation) while the remainder were supersaturated; in the former group with unsaturated bile, 23% had complete dissolution and 51% had partial (>50% reduction in stone size) or complete dissolution. In contrast, those with over 70% chenodiol and supersaturated bile had only 5% complete dissolution. Thus, development of unsaturated bile was a major factor associated with gallstone dissolution. The data also indicate that values for percent cholesterol saturation were a better predictor of gallstone dissolution than molar percent chenodiol, although a high percent chenodiol usually was required to obtain unsaturation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1156-1166
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Clinical Investigation
Volume73
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1984

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Chenodeoxycholic Acid
Gallstones
Lipids
Bile
Cholesterol
Placebos
Physiological Adaptation
Gallbladder
Bile Acids and Salts
Safety

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

@article{a864bf6b970340cbbc181bd1871ddc36,
title = "The effects of chenodiol on biliary lipids and their association with gallstone dissolution in the national cooperative gallstone study (NCGS)",
abstract = "The National Cooperative Gallstone Study was a double-masked trial conducted to determine the efficacy and safety of chenodeoxycholic acid (chenodiol) for dissolution of cholesterol gallstones. Patients with radiolucent gallstones were randomly allocated to either a high dose (750 mg/d, n = 305) or low dose (375 mg/d, n = 306) of chenodiol or placebo (n = 305) administered for 2 yr. Specimens of gallbladder bile were obtained for biliary lipid analysis on 50{\%} of all white patients at base line and after 3-mo therapy, on 45{\%} at 12 mo, and on 36{\%} at 24 mo. Among these specimens, 20{\%} were inadequate for analysis. For analysis of data, available values during therapy were averaged up to time of dissolution, study exit, or study termination. In the high-dose group, percent chenodiol (molar percent of all bile acids) increased markedly and remained high during the 2 yr of follow-up. Also, molar percent cholesterol decreased significantly and remained low during the 2 yr of follow-up. In the low-dose group, percent chenodiol increased and remained significantly increased. Percent cholesterol saturation decreased at 3 mo, but at 24 mo it was not different from that in the placebo group, suggesting a physiological adaptation to the low dose by 2 yr. 79{\%} of patients on high dose had greater than 70{\%} chenodiol. Among these, half showed unsaturated bile (<100{\%} cholesterol saturation) while the remainder were supersaturated; in the former group with unsaturated bile, 23{\%} had complete dissolution and 51{\%} had partial (>50{\%} reduction in stone size) or complete dissolution. In contrast, those with over 70{\%} chenodiol and supersaturated bile had only 5{\%} complete dissolution. Thus, development of unsaturated bile was a major factor associated with gallstone dissolution. The data also indicate that values for percent cholesterol saturation were a better predictor of gallstone dissolution than molar percent chenodiol, although a high percent chenodiol usually was required to obtain unsaturation.",
author = "Grundy, {Scott M} and Lan, {S. P.} and J. Lachin",
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AU - Grundy, Scott M

AU - Lan, S. P.

AU - Lachin, J.

PY - 1984

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N2 - The National Cooperative Gallstone Study was a double-masked trial conducted to determine the efficacy and safety of chenodeoxycholic acid (chenodiol) for dissolution of cholesterol gallstones. Patients with radiolucent gallstones were randomly allocated to either a high dose (750 mg/d, n = 305) or low dose (375 mg/d, n = 306) of chenodiol or placebo (n = 305) administered for 2 yr. Specimens of gallbladder bile were obtained for biliary lipid analysis on 50% of all white patients at base line and after 3-mo therapy, on 45% at 12 mo, and on 36% at 24 mo. Among these specimens, 20% were inadequate for analysis. For analysis of data, available values during therapy were averaged up to time of dissolution, study exit, or study termination. In the high-dose group, percent chenodiol (molar percent of all bile acids) increased markedly and remained high during the 2 yr of follow-up. Also, molar percent cholesterol decreased significantly and remained low during the 2 yr of follow-up. In the low-dose group, percent chenodiol increased and remained significantly increased. Percent cholesterol saturation decreased at 3 mo, but at 24 mo it was not different from that in the placebo group, suggesting a physiological adaptation to the low dose by 2 yr. 79% of patients on high dose had greater than 70% chenodiol. Among these, half showed unsaturated bile (<100% cholesterol saturation) while the remainder were supersaturated; in the former group with unsaturated bile, 23% had complete dissolution and 51% had partial (>50% reduction in stone size) or complete dissolution. In contrast, those with over 70% chenodiol and supersaturated bile had only 5% complete dissolution. Thus, development of unsaturated bile was a major factor associated with gallstone dissolution. The data also indicate that values for percent cholesterol saturation were a better predictor of gallstone dissolution than molar percent chenodiol, although a high percent chenodiol usually was required to obtain unsaturation.

AB - The National Cooperative Gallstone Study was a double-masked trial conducted to determine the efficacy and safety of chenodeoxycholic acid (chenodiol) for dissolution of cholesterol gallstones. Patients with radiolucent gallstones were randomly allocated to either a high dose (750 mg/d, n = 305) or low dose (375 mg/d, n = 306) of chenodiol or placebo (n = 305) administered for 2 yr. Specimens of gallbladder bile were obtained for biliary lipid analysis on 50% of all white patients at base line and after 3-mo therapy, on 45% at 12 mo, and on 36% at 24 mo. Among these specimens, 20% were inadequate for analysis. For analysis of data, available values during therapy were averaged up to time of dissolution, study exit, or study termination. In the high-dose group, percent chenodiol (molar percent of all bile acids) increased markedly and remained high during the 2 yr of follow-up. Also, molar percent cholesterol decreased significantly and remained low during the 2 yr of follow-up. In the low-dose group, percent chenodiol increased and remained significantly increased. Percent cholesterol saturation decreased at 3 mo, but at 24 mo it was not different from that in the placebo group, suggesting a physiological adaptation to the low dose by 2 yr. 79% of patients on high dose had greater than 70% chenodiol. Among these, half showed unsaturated bile (<100% cholesterol saturation) while the remainder were supersaturated; in the former group with unsaturated bile, 23% had complete dissolution and 51% had partial (>50% reduction in stone size) or complete dissolution. In contrast, those with over 70% chenodiol and supersaturated bile had only 5% complete dissolution. Thus, development of unsaturated bile was a major factor associated with gallstone dissolution. The data also indicate that values for percent cholesterol saturation were a better predictor of gallstone dissolution than molar percent chenodiol, although a high percent chenodiol usually was required to obtain unsaturation.

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