Background. The extracardiac Fontan procedure (ECF) usually requires cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). In this report, the results and techniques of this procedure without CPB at a single institution are presented. Methods. Between August 1992 and December 2001, ECF without CPB was achieved in 24 of 44 patients undergoing an ECF. Mean age at surgery was 5.9 ± 2.9 years, and mean weight was 20.7 ± 12.6 kg. Diagnoses were tricuspid atresia in 9 patients, single-ventricle with pulmonary outflow tract obstruction in 7, pulmonary atresia/intact septum in 5, and other complex single-ventricle physiology in 3. Initial palliation was by arterial to pulmonary artery shunt in 21 and pulmonary artery banding in 1. A bidirectional cavopulmonary connection was created in 23 patients. A temporary inferior vena caval-to-atrial shunt was used to complete the procedure without CPB. Median graft size was 16 mm (range 14 to 20 mm). Results. There was no early mortality, and 68% of patients were discharged without complications. Complications included persistent cyanosis in 4 patients, persistent pleural effusions in 2 (one chylous), and phrenic nerve injury in 1. Median postoperative hospital stay was 16 days (range 10 to 50) days. At a mean follow-up of 44 ± 28 months, there was no conduit obstruction. One patient died 11 months postoperatively, and 1 patient received a heart transplant 26 months post-ECF. Conclusions. At intermediate term follow-up, the ECF without CPB appears to be safe and technically reproducible in selected cases. Ongoing follow-up of these patients is necessary to document the theoretical advantages of avoiding CPB.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine