Ophthalmologists are often the first physicians to evaluate patients with headaches, eye pain, and headache-associated visual disturbances. Although ophthalmic causes are sometimes diagnosed, most eye pain and many types of visual disturbances are neurologic in origin. Afferent and efferent symptoms and signs are associated with headache disorders. This article reviews the primary headache disorders and focuses on their ophthalmic manifestations. The major divisions are migraine and the trigeminal autonomic cephalgias.
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