The foot and ankle: Congenital and developmental conditions

Matthew R. Hammer, Deepa R. Pai

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

The radiographic evaluation of congenital and developmental abnormalities of the foot and ankle provides critical information to guide orthopedic treatment. This chapter begins by discussing the anatomy and normal variants of the ankle. Congenital and developmental abnormalities of the ankle are explored, including ball-and-socket ankle. The development and normal variants of the pediatric foot are then discussed. After describing radiographic techniques for imaging the foot, the chapter presents methods to evaluate and vocabulary to describe foot alignment. This is then applied to a broad spectrum of structural deformities of the foot, including clubfoot, cavus deformity, and multiple types of flatfoot (including tarsal coalition). A discussion of forefoot alignment follows, and the chapter concludes with a brief discussion of congenital foot malformations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationPediatric Orthopedic Imaging
PublisherSpringer Berlin Heidelberg
Pages463-516
Number of pages54
ISBN (Electronic)9783642453816
ISBN (Print)9783642453809
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Nursing(all)

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    Hammer, M. R., & Pai, D. R. (2015). The foot and ankle: Congenital and developmental conditions. In Pediatric Orthopedic Imaging (pp. 463-516). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-45381-6_15