The human locus coeruleus: Computer reconstruction of cellular distribution

D. C. German, B. S. Walker, K. Manaye, W. K. Smith, D. J. Woodward, A. J. North

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

120 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Quantitative neuroanatomical techniques were developed to map the distribution of norepinephrine-containing locus coeruleus (LC) neurons in the adult human brain. These neurons reside in the dorsolateral pontine tegmentum and are identifiable by their neuromelanin pigment content. Five brains, ranging in age from 60 to 104 years, were examined. Outlines of coronal or sagittal sections containing the LC were entered into a computer along with the location of each cell, certain neuroanatomical landmarks, and cell size. Sections were aligned with specific neuroanatomical landmarks so that the computer-generated distribution of cells was representative of the in situ distribution of cells. Analysis of (1) the number of cells in sections throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the nucleus, (2) cell size, (3) 3-dimensional reconstructions of the distribution of cells within the brain stem, and (4) 2-dimensional cell-frequency maps, make it possible to quantitatively characterize the distribution of cells within this large nucleus. The total estimated number of LC cells on both sides of the brain ranged from 45,562 to 18,940 (youngest to oldest), and mean soma area ranged from 835 to 718 μm2 (youngest to oldest). The nucleus is 'tube-like' in shape, has a rostrocaudal extent of approximately 16 mm, and is bilaterally symmetrical. Two-dimensional cell-frequency maps were developed to illustrate the regional distribution of cell frequencies at any rostrocaudal/mediolateral point on the horizontal plane; the total unilateral area of the LC ranged from 32.8 to 17.2 mm2 (youngest to oldest). The techniques developed to characterize the 2- and 3-dimensional distributions of LC neurons can be used in future studies to quantitatively examine the effects of aging and disease on this and other brain nuclei.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1776-1788
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Neuroscience
Volume8
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1988

Fingerprint

Locus Coeruleus
Brain
Neurons
Cell Nucleus Size
Carisoprodol
Cell Size
Brain Stem
Norepinephrine
Cell Count

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

German, D. C., Walker, B. S., Manaye, K., Smith, W. K., Woodward, D. J., & North, A. J. (1988). The human locus coeruleus: Computer reconstruction of cellular distribution. Journal of Neuroscience, 8(5), 1776-1788.

The human locus coeruleus : Computer reconstruction of cellular distribution. / German, D. C.; Walker, B. S.; Manaye, K.; Smith, W. K.; Woodward, D. J.; North, A. J.

In: Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 8, No. 5, 1988, p. 1776-1788.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

German, DC, Walker, BS, Manaye, K, Smith, WK, Woodward, DJ & North, AJ 1988, 'The human locus coeruleus: Computer reconstruction of cellular distribution', Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 1776-1788.
German DC, Walker BS, Manaye K, Smith WK, Woodward DJ, North AJ. The human locus coeruleus: Computer reconstruction of cellular distribution. Journal of Neuroscience. 1988;8(5):1776-1788.
German, D. C. ; Walker, B. S. ; Manaye, K. ; Smith, W. K. ; Woodward, D. J. ; North, A. J. / The human locus coeruleus : Computer reconstruction of cellular distribution. In: Journal of Neuroscience. 1988 ; Vol. 8, No. 5. pp. 1776-1788.
@article{906dfd8f9260487aac9d1b7295eaae90,
title = "The human locus coeruleus: Computer reconstruction of cellular distribution",
abstract = "Quantitative neuroanatomical techniques were developed to map the distribution of norepinephrine-containing locus coeruleus (LC) neurons in the adult human brain. These neurons reside in the dorsolateral pontine tegmentum and are identifiable by their neuromelanin pigment content. Five brains, ranging in age from 60 to 104 years, were examined. Outlines of coronal or sagittal sections containing the LC were entered into a computer along with the location of each cell, certain neuroanatomical landmarks, and cell size. Sections were aligned with specific neuroanatomical landmarks so that the computer-generated distribution of cells was representative of the in situ distribution of cells. Analysis of (1) the number of cells in sections throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the nucleus, (2) cell size, (3) 3-dimensional reconstructions of the distribution of cells within the brain stem, and (4) 2-dimensional cell-frequency maps, make it possible to quantitatively characterize the distribution of cells within this large nucleus. The total estimated number of LC cells on both sides of the brain ranged from 45,562 to 18,940 (youngest to oldest), and mean soma area ranged from 835 to 718 μm2 (youngest to oldest). The nucleus is 'tube-like' in shape, has a rostrocaudal extent of approximately 16 mm, and is bilaterally symmetrical. Two-dimensional cell-frequency maps were developed to illustrate the regional distribution of cell frequencies at any rostrocaudal/mediolateral point on the horizontal plane; the total unilateral area of the LC ranged from 32.8 to 17.2 mm2 (youngest to oldest). The techniques developed to characterize the 2- and 3-dimensional distributions of LC neurons can be used in future studies to quantitatively examine the effects of aging and disease on this and other brain nuclei.",
author = "German, {D. C.} and Walker, {B. S.} and K. Manaye and Smith, {W. K.} and Woodward, {D. J.} and North, {A. J.}",
year = "1988",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "8",
pages = "1776--1788",
journal = "Journal of Neuroscience",
issn = "0270-6474",
publisher = "Society for Neuroscience",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The human locus coeruleus

T2 - Computer reconstruction of cellular distribution

AU - German, D. C.

AU - Walker, B. S.

AU - Manaye, K.

AU - Smith, W. K.

AU - Woodward, D. J.

AU - North, A. J.

PY - 1988

Y1 - 1988

N2 - Quantitative neuroanatomical techniques were developed to map the distribution of norepinephrine-containing locus coeruleus (LC) neurons in the adult human brain. These neurons reside in the dorsolateral pontine tegmentum and are identifiable by their neuromelanin pigment content. Five brains, ranging in age from 60 to 104 years, were examined. Outlines of coronal or sagittal sections containing the LC were entered into a computer along with the location of each cell, certain neuroanatomical landmarks, and cell size. Sections were aligned with specific neuroanatomical landmarks so that the computer-generated distribution of cells was representative of the in situ distribution of cells. Analysis of (1) the number of cells in sections throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the nucleus, (2) cell size, (3) 3-dimensional reconstructions of the distribution of cells within the brain stem, and (4) 2-dimensional cell-frequency maps, make it possible to quantitatively characterize the distribution of cells within this large nucleus. The total estimated number of LC cells on both sides of the brain ranged from 45,562 to 18,940 (youngest to oldest), and mean soma area ranged from 835 to 718 μm2 (youngest to oldest). The nucleus is 'tube-like' in shape, has a rostrocaudal extent of approximately 16 mm, and is bilaterally symmetrical. Two-dimensional cell-frequency maps were developed to illustrate the regional distribution of cell frequencies at any rostrocaudal/mediolateral point on the horizontal plane; the total unilateral area of the LC ranged from 32.8 to 17.2 mm2 (youngest to oldest). The techniques developed to characterize the 2- and 3-dimensional distributions of LC neurons can be used in future studies to quantitatively examine the effects of aging and disease on this and other brain nuclei.

AB - Quantitative neuroanatomical techniques were developed to map the distribution of norepinephrine-containing locus coeruleus (LC) neurons in the adult human brain. These neurons reside in the dorsolateral pontine tegmentum and are identifiable by their neuromelanin pigment content. Five brains, ranging in age from 60 to 104 years, were examined. Outlines of coronal or sagittal sections containing the LC were entered into a computer along with the location of each cell, certain neuroanatomical landmarks, and cell size. Sections were aligned with specific neuroanatomical landmarks so that the computer-generated distribution of cells was representative of the in situ distribution of cells. Analysis of (1) the number of cells in sections throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the nucleus, (2) cell size, (3) 3-dimensional reconstructions of the distribution of cells within the brain stem, and (4) 2-dimensional cell-frequency maps, make it possible to quantitatively characterize the distribution of cells within this large nucleus. The total estimated number of LC cells on both sides of the brain ranged from 45,562 to 18,940 (youngest to oldest), and mean soma area ranged from 835 to 718 μm2 (youngest to oldest). The nucleus is 'tube-like' in shape, has a rostrocaudal extent of approximately 16 mm, and is bilaterally symmetrical. Two-dimensional cell-frequency maps were developed to illustrate the regional distribution of cell frequencies at any rostrocaudal/mediolateral point on the horizontal plane; the total unilateral area of the LC ranged from 32.8 to 17.2 mm2 (youngest to oldest). The techniques developed to characterize the 2- and 3-dimensional distributions of LC neurons can be used in future studies to quantitatively examine the effects of aging and disease on this and other brain nuclei.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0023882769&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0023882769&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 3367220

AN - SCOPUS:0023882769

VL - 8

SP - 1776

EP - 1788

JO - Journal of Neuroscience

JF - Journal of Neuroscience

SN - 0270-6474

IS - 5

ER -