The SKIV2L RNA exosome is an evolutionarily conserved RNA degradation complex in the eukaryotes. Mutations in the SKIV2L gene are associated with a severe inherited disorder, trichohepatoenteric syndrome (THES), with multisystem involvement but unknown disease mechanism. Here, we reported a THES patient with SKIV2L mutations showing severe primary B cell immunodeficiency, hypogammaglobulinemia, and kappa-restricted plasma cell dyscrasia but normal T cell and NK cell function. To corroborate these findings, we made B cell-specific Skiv2l knockout mice (Skiv2lfl/flCd79a-Cre), which lacked both conventional B-2 and innate-like B-1 B cells in the periphery and secondary lymphoid organs. This was linked to a requirement of SKIV2L RNA exosome activity in the bone marrow during early B cell development at the pro-B cell to large pre-B cell transition. Mechanistically, Skiv2l-deficient pro-B cells exhibited cell cycle arrest and DNA damage. Furthermore, loss of Skiv2l led to substantial out-of-frame V(D)J rearrangement of immunoglobulin heavy chain and severely reduced surface expression of μH, both of which are crucial for pre-BCR signaling and proliferative burst during early B cell development. Together, our data demonstrated a crucial role for SKIV2L RNA exosome in early B cell development in both human and mice by ensuring proper V(D)J recombination and Igh expression, which serves as the molecular basis for immunodeficiency associated with THES.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy