The traditional reconstructive ladder has withstood the test of time, serving as a thought paradigm to guide surgeons in choosing their method of wound closure for an assortment of defects. Advances in anatomical understanding and technological innovations have improved our ability to achieve definitive closure in a wide variety of patients. In this article, the older construct is updated to reflect the use of negative-pressure wound therapy and dermal matrices. Perforator flap concepts are also discussed in terms of their inclusion as a rung on the ladder.
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