The theoretical aspects of the calculation and measurement of the interphase [phase boundary] potential difference at the interface between two immiscible liquids are examined and the non-thermodynamic tetraphenylborate hypothesis, which makes it possible to determine the standard ion distribution potentials, is discussed. The electrochemical properties of charged interfaces are analysed and equations are presented for the interphase potential jumps in the presence of Donnan equilibrium, incomplete dissociation of the salt, two electrolytes with a common ion, complex formation in one of the phases, and an oxidation-reduction equilibrium. The experimental methods for the measurement of the interphase potential difference and for testing the thermodynamic theory of distribution potentials at reversible interfaces are examined. The bibliography includes 93 references.
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