The pressor response to concurrent stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region and peripheral sensory afferents is attenuated in normotensive but not hypertensive rats

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Abstract

Central command (CC) and the exercise pressor reflex (EPR) regulate blood pressure during exercise. We previously demonstrated that experimental stimulation of the CC and EPR pathways independently contribute to the exaggerated pressor response to exercise in hypertension. It is known that CC and EPR modify one another functionally. Whether their interactive relationship is altered in hypertension, contributing to the generation of this potentiated blood pressure response, remains unknown. To address this issue, the pressor response to activation of the CC pathway with and without concurrent stimulation of the EPR pathway, and vice versa, was examined in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. In decerebrated, paralyzed animals, activation of the CC pathway was evoked by electrical stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR; 20–50 μA in 10-μA steps). Electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve (SN, 3, 5, and 10 × motor threshold; MT) was used to activate hindlimb afferents known to carry EPR sensory information. In both WKY and SHR, the algebraic sum of the pressor responses to individual stimulation of the MLR and SN were greater than when both inputs were stimulated simultaneously. Although the blood pressure response to a constant level of SN stimulation was not significantly affected by concurrent MLR stimulation at variable intensities, the pressor response to a constant level of MLR simulation was significantly attenuated by concurrent SN stimulation in WKY but not in SHR. These findings suggest the interactive relationship between CC and the EPR is inhibitory in nature in both WKY and SHR. However, the neural occlusion between these central and peripheral pressor mechanisms is attenuated in hypertension.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number95
JournalFrontiers in Physiology
Volume10
Issue numberFEB
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

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Reflex
Blood Pressure
Hypertension
Electric Stimulation
Sciatic Nerve
Inbred SHR Rats
Hindlimb

Keywords

  • Blood pressure
  • Central command
  • Exercise pressor reflex
  • Hypertension
  • Mesencephalic locomotor region
  • Sympathetic nerve activity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

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title = "The pressor response to concurrent stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region and peripheral sensory afferents is attenuated in normotensive but not hypertensive rats",
abstract = "Central command (CC) and the exercise pressor reflex (EPR) regulate blood pressure during exercise. We previously demonstrated that experimental stimulation of the CC and EPR pathways independently contribute to the exaggerated pressor response to exercise in hypertension. It is known that CC and EPR modify one another functionally. Whether their interactive relationship is altered in hypertension, contributing to the generation of this potentiated blood pressure response, remains unknown. To address this issue, the pressor response to activation of the CC pathway with and without concurrent stimulation of the EPR pathway, and vice versa, was examined in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. In decerebrated, paralyzed animals, activation of the CC pathway was evoked by electrical stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR; 20–50 μA in 10-μA steps). Electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve (SN, 3, 5, and 10 × motor threshold; MT) was used to activate hindlimb afferents known to carry EPR sensory information. In both WKY and SHR, the algebraic sum of the pressor responses to individual stimulation of the MLR and SN were greater than when both inputs were stimulated simultaneously. Although the blood pressure response to a constant level of SN stimulation was not significantly affected by concurrent MLR stimulation at variable intensities, the pressor response to a constant level of MLR simulation was significantly attenuated by concurrent SN stimulation in WKY but not in SHR. These findings suggest the interactive relationship between CC and the EPR is inhibitory in nature in both WKY and SHR. However, the neural occlusion between these central and peripheral pressor mechanisms is attenuated in hypertension.",
keywords = "Blood pressure, Central command, Exercise pressor reflex, Hypertension, Mesencephalic locomotor region, Sympathetic nerve activity",
author = "Nan Liang and Iwamoto, {Gary A} and Downey, {Ryan M.} and Mitchell, {Jere H} and Smith, {Scott A} and Masaki Mizuno",
year = "2019",
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doi = "10.3389/fphys.2019.00095",
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T1 - The pressor response to concurrent stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region and peripheral sensory afferents is attenuated in normotensive but not hypertensive rats

AU - Liang, Nan

AU - Iwamoto, Gary A

AU - Downey, Ryan M.

AU - Mitchell, Jere H

AU - Smith, Scott A

AU - Mizuno, Masaki

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Central command (CC) and the exercise pressor reflex (EPR) regulate blood pressure during exercise. We previously demonstrated that experimental stimulation of the CC and EPR pathways independently contribute to the exaggerated pressor response to exercise in hypertension. It is known that CC and EPR modify one another functionally. Whether their interactive relationship is altered in hypertension, contributing to the generation of this potentiated blood pressure response, remains unknown. To address this issue, the pressor response to activation of the CC pathway with and without concurrent stimulation of the EPR pathway, and vice versa, was examined in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. In decerebrated, paralyzed animals, activation of the CC pathway was evoked by electrical stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR; 20–50 μA in 10-μA steps). Electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve (SN, 3, 5, and 10 × motor threshold; MT) was used to activate hindlimb afferents known to carry EPR sensory information. In both WKY and SHR, the algebraic sum of the pressor responses to individual stimulation of the MLR and SN were greater than when both inputs were stimulated simultaneously. Although the blood pressure response to a constant level of SN stimulation was not significantly affected by concurrent MLR stimulation at variable intensities, the pressor response to a constant level of MLR simulation was significantly attenuated by concurrent SN stimulation in WKY but not in SHR. These findings suggest the interactive relationship between CC and the EPR is inhibitory in nature in both WKY and SHR. However, the neural occlusion between these central and peripheral pressor mechanisms is attenuated in hypertension.

AB - Central command (CC) and the exercise pressor reflex (EPR) regulate blood pressure during exercise. We previously demonstrated that experimental stimulation of the CC and EPR pathways independently contribute to the exaggerated pressor response to exercise in hypertension. It is known that CC and EPR modify one another functionally. Whether their interactive relationship is altered in hypertension, contributing to the generation of this potentiated blood pressure response, remains unknown. To address this issue, the pressor response to activation of the CC pathway with and without concurrent stimulation of the EPR pathway, and vice versa, was examined in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. In decerebrated, paralyzed animals, activation of the CC pathway was evoked by electrical stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR; 20–50 μA in 10-μA steps). Electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve (SN, 3, 5, and 10 × motor threshold; MT) was used to activate hindlimb afferents known to carry EPR sensory information. In both WKY and SHR, the algebraic sum of the pressor responses to individual stimulation of the MLR and SN were greater than when both inputs were stimulated simultaneously. Although the blood pressure response to a constant level of SN stimulation was not significantly affected by concurrent MLR stimulation at variable intensities, the pressor response to a constant level of MLR simulation was significantly attenuated by concurrent SN stimulation in WKY but not in SHR. These findings suggest the interactive relationship between CC and the EPR is inhibitory in nature in both WKY and SHR. However, the neural occlusion between these central and peripheral pressor mechanisms is attenuated in hypertension.

KW - Blood pressure

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KW - Hypertension

KW - Mesencephalic locomotor region

KW - Sympathetic nerve activity

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