The relationships between macronutrient and micronutrient intakes and type 2 diabetes mellitus in South Asians: A review

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article


Background: South Asians (SA) have increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The role of nutrient intakes in T2DM in SA is not well understood, however. Objective: The paper reviewed the relationship between macronutrient and micronutrients intakes and T2DM in SA. Methods: The MEDLINE database was searched for relevant papers on this topic in SA. Results: There was some evidence that dietary fiber and linoleic acid intake may reduce but carbohydrates may increase the risk of T2DM. Some studies found higher energy from protein and fat in subjects with T2DM versus controls. Other studies, however, found lower carbohydrate intake among those with T2DM or no relationship between diet composition and T2DM. Several vitamins and minerals were also inversely related to T2DM. Conclusions: The data were limited to a few epidemiological studies. Most studies did not distinguish between undiagnosed and known T2DM. Subjects with known T2DM are more likely to have changed their diet. Prospective cohort or randomized controlled studies examining the role of diet composition, using precise image-assisted dietary assessment method and blood biomarkers, in the development of T2DM among migrant and native SA are needed. Lastly, a more complete nutrient database for foods consumed by SA is needed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Diabetes and its Complications
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019



  • Asian Indians
  • Dietary intake
  • Macronutrient intakes
  • Micronutrient intakes
  • South Asians
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology

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