OBJECTIVE: Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most common nongenetic cause of mental retardation. Peptides NAPVSIPQ (NAP) and SALLRSIPA (SAL), related to activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP), prevent alcohol-induced damage in a mouse model of FAS. Our objective was to characterize ADNP in this model to relate this protein to the mechanisms of damage and peptide neuroprotection. STUDY DESIGN: Timed, pregnant C57BI6/J mice were treated on day 8. Groups were control, alcohol, peptide pretreatment, or peptide alone. Embryo and decidua were harvested at 6 and 24 hours and 10 days. To evaluate ADNP expression, real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed with results presented as the ratio of ADNP-to-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) concentration. Analysis of variance was performed for overall comparisons with P < .05 considered significant. RESULTS: At 6 hours, there was no difference in ADNP between alcohol-exposed embryos compared with control embryos. At 24 hours, there was an increase in ADNP in alcohol-exposed embryos compared with controls (P < .001); these findings persisted at 10 days (P < .001). In the decidua at 6 hours, there was no difference between alcohol and control. At 24 hours, there was greater ADNP in alcohol-exposed decidua compared with controls (P < .001), which did not persist at 10 days (P = .97). Peptide pretreatment did not prevent the alcohol-induced increase in ADNP in embryo or decidua. CONCLUSION: Alcohol increased embryonic and decidual ADNP expression at 24 hours and it persisted in the embryo for 10 days. Because ADNP is a known neuroprotectant, these findings suggest that it may be released as a protective mechanism in FAS. Changes in the embryo were persistent suggesting that the embryo is more vulnerable to alcohol-induced damage than the mother.
- Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein
- Fetal alcohol syndrome
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Obstetrics and Gynecology