The role of elevated lactate as a risk factor for pulmonary morbidity after early fixation of femoral shaft fractures

Justin E. Richards, Paul E. Matuszewski, Sean M. Griffin, Daniel M. Koehler, Oscar D. Guillamondegui, Robert V. O'Toole, Michael J. Bosse, William T. Obremskey, Jason M. Evans

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives: To evaluate lactate levels before reamed intramedullary nailing (IMN) of femur fractures treated with early fixation. Design: Retrospective study. Setting: Three academic, tertiary care trauma centers. Patients: Age ≥18 years, injury severity score ≥17, admission lactate ≥ 2.5 mmol/L, elevated preoperative lactate preoperative lactate ≥ 2.5 mmol/L. Intervention: Reamed IMN of femur fracture within 24 hours. Main Outcome Measure: Total duration of mechanical ventilation, pulmonary complications (PC) duration of mechanical ventilation ≥5 days. Results: Four hundred and fourteen patients identified; 294/414 (71.0%) with admission lactate ≥ 2.5 mmol/L. No difference in PC among the groups (86/294, 29.3% vs. 28/120, 23.3%; P 0.22). Median admission lactate: 3.7 (interquartile range: 3.0-4.6); median preoperative lactate: 2.8 (interquartile range: 1.9-3.5). 184/294 (62.6%) demonstrated an elevated preoperative lactate (≥ 2.5 mmol/L) before fracture fixation. No difference in elevated preoperative lactate and vent days (4.8 ± 9.9 vs. 3.9 ± 6.0, P 0.41) or PC (50/86, 58.1% vs. 134/208, 64.4%; P 0.31). There was no difference in PC when preoperative lactate was considered separately for a lactate ≥3.0 (34/123, 27.6% vs. 52/171, 30.4%; P 0.61), ≥3.5 (21/79, 26.6% vs. 65/215, 30.2%; P 0.54), or ≥4.0 (14/50, 28.0% vs. 72/244, 29.5%; P 0.83). Multivariable linear regression modeling demonstrated that admission lactate [coefficient of variation: 0.84, standard error: 0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.20-1.49] was correlated with duration of mechanical ventilation, after adjusting for emergency department Glasgow Coma Scale, age, chest Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score, abdominal AIS, and admission glucose. Logistic regression demonstrated admission lactate was also significantly associated with PC (odds ratio: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.03-1.53) after controlling for age, admission Glasgow Coma Scale, chest AIS, abdominal AIS, admission pulse and admission glucose; preoperative lactate was not a risk factor (odds ratio: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.65-1.09) for PC. Conclusion: Median admission lactate of 3.7 mmol/L was associated with duration of mechanical ventilation ≥5 days, whereas median preoperative lactate of 2.8 mmol/L was not, when multisystem trauma patients with a femoral shaft fracture were treated with reamed IMN within 24 hours after admission. Level of Evidence: Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)312-318
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of orthopaedic trauma
Volume30
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2016
Externally publishedYes

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Femoral Fractures
Lactic Acid
Morbidity
Lung
Abbreviated Injury Scale
Artificial Respiration
Intramedullary Fracture Fixation
Abdominal Injuries
Thoracic Injuries
Glasgow Coma Scale
Confidence Intervals
Femur
Odds Ratio
Glucose
Fracture Fixation
Injury Severity Score
Trauma Centers
Tertiary Care Centers

Keywords

  • femur fracture
  • lactate
  • pulmonary complications

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Cite this

The role of elevated lactate as a risk factor for pulmonary morbidity after early fixation of femoral shaft fractures. / Richards, Justin E.; Matuszewski, Paul E.; Griffin, Sean M.; Koehler, Daniel M.; Guillamondegui, Oscar D.; O'Toole, Robert V.; Bosse, Michael J.; Obremskey, William T.; Evans, Jason M.

In: Journal of orthopaedic trauma, Vol. 30, No. 6, 01.06.2016, p. 312-318.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Richards, JE, Matuszewski, PE, Griffin, SM, Koehler, DM, Guillamondegui, OD, O'Toole, RV, Bosse, MJ, Obremskey, WT & Evans, JM 2016, 'The role of elevated lactate as a risk factor for pulmonary morbidity after early fixation of femoral shaft fractures', Journal of orthopaedic trauma, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 312-318. https://doi.org/10.1097/BOT.0000000000000528
Richards, Justin E. ; Matuszewski, Paul E. ; Griffin, Sean M. ; Koehler, Daniel M. ; Guillamondegui, Oscar D. ; O'Toole, Robert V. ; Bosse, Michael J. ; Obremskey, William T. ; Evans, Jason M. / The role of elevated lactate as a risk factor for pulmonary morbidity after early fixation of femoral shaft fractures. In: Journal of orthopaedic trauma. 2016 ; Vol. 30, No. 6. pp. 312-318.
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T1 - The role of elevated lactate as a risk factor for pulmonary morbidity after early fixation of femoral shaft fractures

AU - Richards, Justin E.

AU - Matuszewski, Paul E.

AU - Griffin, Sean M.

AU - Koehler, Daniel M.

AU - Guillamondegui, Oscar D.

AU - O'Toole, Robert V.

AU - Bosse, Michael J.

AU - Obremskey, William T.

AU - Evans, Jason M.

PY - 2016/6/1

Y1 - 2016/6/1

N2 - Objectives: To evaluate lactate levels before reamed intramedullary nailing (IMN) of femur fractures treated with early fixation. Design: Retrospective study. Setting: Three academic, tertiary care trauma centers. Patients: Age ≥18 years, injury severity score ≥17, admission lactate ≥ 2.5 mmol/L, elevated preoperative lactate preoperative lactate ≥ 2.5 mmol/L. Intervention: Reamed IMN of femur fracture within 24 hours. Main Outcome Measure: Total duration of mechanical ventilation, pulmonary complications (PC) duration of mechanical ventilation ≥5 days. Results: Four hundred and fourteen patients identified; 294/414 (71.0%) with admission lactate ≥ 2.5 mmol/L. No difference in PC among the groups (86/294, 29.3% vs. 28/120, 23.3%; P 0.22). Median admission lactate: 3.7 (interquartile range: 3.0-4.6); median preoperative lactate: 2.8 (interquartile range: 1.9-3.5). 184/294 (62.6%) demonstrated an elevated preoperative lactate (≥ 2.5 mmol/L) before fracture fixation. No difference in elevated preoperative lactate and vent days (4.8 ± 9.9 vs. 3.9 ± 6.0, P 0.41) or PC (50/86, 58.1% vs. 134/208, 64.4%; P 0.31). There was no difference in PC when preoperative lactate was considered separately for a lactate ≥3.0 (34/123, 27.6% vs. 52/171, 30.4%; P 0.61), ≥3.5 (21/79, 26.6% vs. 65/215, 30.2%; P 0.54), or ≥4.0 (14/50, 28.0% vs. 72/244, 29.5%; P 0.83). Multivariable linear regression modeling demonstrated that admission lactate [coefficient of variation: 0.84, standard error: 0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.20-1.49] was correlated with duration of mechanical ventilation, after adjusting for emergency department Glasgow Coma Scale, age, chest Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score, abdominal AIS, and admission glucose. Logistic regression demonstrated admission lactate was also significantly associated with PC (odds ratio: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.03-1.53) after controlling for age, admission Glasgow Coma Scale, chest AIS, abdominal AIS, admission pulse and admission glucose; preoperative lactate was not a risk factor (odds ratio: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.65-1.09) for PC. Conclusion: Median admission lactate of 3.7 mmol/L was associated with duration of mechanical ventilation ≥5 days, whereas median preoperative lactate of 2.8 mmol/L was not, when multisystem trauma patients with a femoral shaft fracture were treated with reamed IMN within 24 hours after admission. Level of Evidence: Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

AB - Objectives: To evaluate lactate levels before reamed intramedullary nailing (IMN) of femur fractures treated with early fixation. Design: Retrospective study. Setting: Three academic, tertiary care trauma centers. Patients: Age ≥18 years, injury severity score ≥17, admission lactate ≥ 2.5 mmol/L, elevated preoperative lactate preoperative lactate ≥ 2.5 mmol/L. Intervention: Reamed IMN of femur fracture within 24 hours. Main Outcome Measure: Total duration of mechanical ventilation, pulmonary complications (PC) duration of mechanical ventilation ≥5 days. Results: Four hundred and fourteen patients identified; 294/414 (71.0%) with admission lactate ≥ 2.5 mmol/L. No difference in PC among the groups (86/294, 29.3% vs. 28/120, 23.3%; P 0.22). Median admission lactate: 3.7 (interquartile range: 3.0-4.6); median preoperative lactate: 2.8 (interquartile range: 1.9-3.5). 184/294 (62.6%) demonstrated an elevated preoperative lactate (≥ 2.5 mmol/L) before fracture fixation. No difference in elevated preoperative lactate and vent days (4.8 ± 9.9 vs. 3.9 ± 6.0, P 0.41) or PC (50/86, 58.1% vs. 134/208, 64.4%; P 0.31). There was no difference in PC when preoperative lactate was considered separately for a lactate ≥3.0 (34/123, 27.6% vs. 52/171, 30.4%; P 0.61), ≥3.5 (21/79, 26.6% vs. 65/215, 30.2%; P 0.54), or ≥4.0 (14/50, 28.0% vs. 72/244, 29.5%; P 0.83). Multivariable linear regression modeling demonstrated that admission lactate [coefficient of variation: 0.84, standard error: 0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.20-1.49] was correlated with duration of mechanical ventilation, after adjusting for emergency department Glasgow Coma Scale, age, chest Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score, abdominal AIS, and admission glucose. Logistic regression demonstrated admission lactate was also significantly associated with PC (odds ratio: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.03-1.53) after controlling for age, admission Glasgow Coma Scale, chest AIS, abdominal AIS, admission pulse and admission glucose; preoperative lactate was not a risk factor (odds ratio: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.65-1.09) for PC. Conclusion: Median admission lactate of 3.7 mmol/L was associated with duration of mechanical ventilation ≥5 days, whereas median preoperative lactate of 2.8 mmol/L was not, when multisystem trauma patients with a femoral shaft fracture were treated with reamed IMN within 24 hours after admission. Level of Evidence: Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

KW - femur fracture

KW - lactate

KW - pulmonary complications

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