Collective clinical and bench observations of the past 25 years have expanded interest in the role that fungi may play in developing and perpetuating inflammatory disease of the respiratory tract. As with any new concept, controversy regarding such a process has emerged, but it has served to stimulate increased interest and further study. Review of the current literature appears to offer strong evidence to support both allergic and nonallergic forms of noninvasive fungal inflammation. It remains to be seen whether or these forms of inflammation are inter-related or independent of one another. As investigation focusing upon these new concepts continues, it should lead to better understanding of chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory tracts.
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