Over the past decade, the function of the cytoskeleton has been studied extensively in developing and mature neurons. Actin, a major cytoskeletal protein, is indispensable for the structural integrity and plasticity of neurons and their synapses. Disruption of actin dynamics has significant consequence for neurons, neuronal circuits, and the functions they govern. In particular, cell adhesion molecules, members of the Rho family of GTPases, and actin-binding proteins are important modulators of actin dynamics and neuronal as well as behavioral plasticity. In this review, we discuss recent advances in Drosophila that highlight the importance of actin regulatory proteins in mediating fly behaviors such as circadian rhythm, courtship behavior, learning and memory, and the development of drug addiction.
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