Posttranslational protein modifications play an important role in regulating protein stability and cellular function. There are at least eight Cullin family members. Among them, Cullin-2 forms a functional E3 ligase complex with elongin B, elongin C, RING-box protein 1 (RBX1, also called ROC1), as well as the substrate recognition subunit (SRS) to promote the substrate ubiquitination and degradation. In this book chapter, we will review Cullin-2 E3 ligase complexes that include various SRS proteins, including von Hippel Lindau (pVHL), leucine-rich repeat protein-1 (LRR-1), preferentially expressed antigen of melanoma (PRAME), sex-determining protein FEM-1 and early embryogenesis protein ZYG-11. We will focus on the VHL signaling pathway in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), which may reveal various therapeutic avenues in treating this lethal cancer.