The stress-induced cytokine interleukin-6 decreases the inhibition/excitation ratio in the rat temporal cortex via trans-signaling

Francisco Garcia-Oscos, Humberto Salgado, Shawn Hall, Feba Thomas, George E. Farmer, Jorge Bermeo, Luis Charles Galindo, Ruben D. Ramirez, Santosh D'Mello, Stefan Rose-John, Marco Atzori

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Abstract

Background: Although it is known that stress elevates the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and promotes hyper-excitable central conditions, a causal relationship between these two factors has not yet been identified. Recent studies suggest that increases in interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels are specifically associated with stress. We hypothesized that IL-6 acutely and directly induces cortical hyper-excitability by altering the balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition. Methods: We used patch-clamp to determine the effects of exogenous or endogenous IL-6 on electrically evoked postsynaptic currents on a cortical rat slice preparation. We used control subjects or animals systemically injected with lipopolysaccharide or subjected to electrical foot-shock as rat models of stress. Results: In control animals, IL-6 did not affect excitatory postsynaptic currents but selectively and reversibly reduced the amplitude of inhibitory postsynaptic currents with a postsynaptic effect. The IL-6-induced inhibitory postsynaptic currents decrease was inhibited by drugs interfering with receptor trafficking and/or internalization, including wortmannin, Brefeldin A, 2-Br-hexadecanoic acid, or dynamin peptide inhibitor. In both animal models, stress-induced decrease in synaptic inhibition/excitation ratio was prevented by prior intra-ventricular injection of an analog of the endogenous IL-6 trans-signaling blocker gp130. Conclusions: Our results suggest that stress-induced IL-6 shifts the balance between synaptic inhibition and excitation in favor of the latter, possibly by decreasing the density of functional γ-aminobutyric acid A receptors, accelerating their removal and/or decreasing their insertion rate from/to the plasma membrane. We speculate that this mechanism could contribute to stress-induced detrimental long-term increases in central excitability present in a variety of neurological and psychiatric conditions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)574-582
Number of pages9
JournalBiological Psychiatry
Volume71
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2012

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Temporal Lobe
Interleukin-6
Cytokines
Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials
Dynamins
Aminobutyrates
Brefeldin A
Synaptic Potentials
Palmitic Acid
Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials
Psychiatry
Lipopolysaccharides
Foot
Shock
Animal Models
Cell Membrane
Peptides
Injections
Pharmaceutical Preparations

Keywords

  • γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
  • 2-Br-hexadecanoic acid
  • Brefeldin A
  • dynamin inhibitory peptide
  • foot-shock
  • gp130
  • interleukin-6 (IL-6)
  • lipopolysaccharide (LPS)
  • patch-clamp
  • PI3K/AKT
  • postsynaptic
  • rat
  • stress
  • temporal cortex
  • trans-signaling
  • wortmannin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biological Psychiatry

Cite this

The stress-induced cytokine interleukin-6 decreases the inhibition/excitation ratio in the rat temporal cortex via trans-signaling. / Garcia-Oscos, Francisco; Salgado, Humberto; Hall, Shawn; Thomas, Feba; Farmer, George E.; Bermeo, Jorge; Galindo, Luis Charles; Ramirez, Ruben D.; D'Mello, Santosh; Rose-John, Stefan; Atzori, Marco.

In: Biological Psychiatry, Vol. 71, No. 7, 01.04.2012, p. 574-582.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Garcia-Oscos, F, Salgado, H, Hall, S, Thomas, F, Farmer, GE, Bermeo, J, Galindo, LC, Ramirez, RD, D'Mello, S, Rose-John, S & Atzori, M 2012, 'The stress-induced cytokine interleukin-6 decreases the inhibition/excitation ratio in the rat temporal cortex via trans-signaling', Biological Psychiatry, vol. 71, no. 7, pp. 574-582. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.11.018
Garcia-Oscos, Francisco ; Salgado, Humberto ; Hall, Shawn ; Thomas, Feba ; Farmer, George E. ; Bermeo, Jorge ; Galindo, Luis Charles ; Ramirez, Ruben D. ; D'Mello, Santosh ; Rose-John, Stefan ; Atzori, Marco. / The stress-induced cytokine interleukin-6 decreases the inhibition/excitation ratio in the rat temporal cortex via trans-signaling. In: Biological Psychiatry. 2012 ; Vol. 71, No. 7. pp. 574-582.
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AU - Thomas, Feba

AU - Farmer, George E.

AU - Bermeo, Jorge

AU - Galindo, Luis Charles

AU - Ramirez, Ruben D.

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AU - Atzori, Marco

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N2 - Background: Although it is known that stress elevates the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and promotes hyper-excitable central conditions, a causal relationship between these two factors has not yet been identified. Recent studies suggest that increases in interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels are specifically associated with stress. We hypothesized that IL-6 acutely and directly induces cortical hyper-excitability by altering the balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition. Methods: We used patch-clamp to determine the effects of exogenous or endogenous IL-6 on electrically evoked postsynaptic currents on a cortical rat slice preparation. We used control subjects or animals systemically injected with lipopolysaccharide or subjected to electrical foot-shock as rat models of stress. Results: In control animals, IL-6 did not affect excitatory postsynaptic currents but selectively and reversibly reduced the amplitude of inhibitory postsynaptic currents with a postsynaptic effect. The IL-6-induced inhibitory postsynaptic currents decrease was inhibited by drugs interfering with receptor trafficking and/or internalization, including wortmannin, Brefeldin A, 2-Br-hexadecanoic acid, or dynamin peptide inhibitor. In both animal models, stress-induced decrease in synaptic inhibition/excitation ratio was prevented by prior intra-ventricular injection of an analog of the endogenous IL-6 trans-signaling blocker gp130. Conclusions: Our results suggest that stress-induced IL-6 shifts the balance between synaptic inhibition and excitation in favor of the latter, possibly by decreasing the density of functional γ-aminobutyric acid A receptors, accelerating their removal and/or decreasing their insertion rate from/to the plasma membrane. We speculate that this mechanism could contribute to stress-induced detrimental long-term increases in central excitability present in a variety of neurological and psychiatric conditions.

AB - Background: Although it is known that stress elevates the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and promotes hyper-excitable central conditions, a causal relationship between these two factors has not yet been identified. Recent studies suggest that increases in interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels are specifically associated with stress. We hypothesized that IL-6 acutely and directly induces cortical hyper-excitability by altering the balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition. Methods: We used patch-clamp to determine the effects of exogenous or endogenous IL-6 on electrically evoked postsynaptic currents on a cortical rat slice preparation. We used control subjects or animals systemically injected with lipopolysaccharide or subjected to electrical foot-shock as rat models of stress. Results: In control animals, IL-6 did not affect excitatory postsynaptic currents but selectively and reversibly reduced the amplitude of inhibitory postsynaptic currents with a postsynaptic effect. The IL-6-induced inhibitory postsynaptic currents decrease was inhibited by drugs interfering with receptor trafficking and/or internalization, including wortmannin, Brefeldin A, 2-Br-hexadecanoic acid, or dynamin peptide inhibitor. In both animal models, stress-induced decrease in synaptic inhibition/excitation ratio was prevented by prior intra-ventricular injection of an analog of the endogenous IL-6 trans-signaling blocker gp130. Conclusions: Our results suggest that stress-induced IL-6 shifts the balance between synaptic inhibition and excitation in favor of the latter, possibly by decreasing the density of functional γ-aminobutyric acid A receptors, accelerating their removal and/or decreasing their insertion rate from/to the plasma membrane. We speculate that this mechanism could contribute to stress-induced detrimental long-term increases in central excitability present in a variety of neurological and psychiatric conditions.

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