Acetaminophen is cleared primarily by hepatic glucuronidation. Polymorphisms in genes encoding the acetaminophen UDPglucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes could explain interindividual variability in acetaminophen glucuronidation and variable risk for liver injury after acetaminophen overdose. In this study, human liver bank samples were phenotyped for acetaminophen glucuronidation activity and genotyped for the major acetaminophenglucuronidating enzymes (UGTs 1A1, 1A6, 1A9, and 2B15). Of these, only three linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the shared UGT1A-39UTR region (rs10929303, rs1042640, rs8330) were associated with acetaminophen glucuronidation activity, with rs8330 consistently showing higher acetaminophen glucuronidation at all the tested concentrations of acetaminophen. Mechanistic studies using luciferase-UGT1A- 39UTR reporters indicated that these SNPs do not alter mRNA stability or translation efficiency. However, there was evidence for allelic imbalance and a gene-dose proportional increase in the amount of exon 5a versus exon 5b containing UGT1A mRNA spliced transcripts in livers with the rs8330 variant allele. Cotransfection studies demonstrated an inhibitory effect of exon 5b containing cDNAs on acetaminophen glucuronidation by UGT1A1 and UGT1A6 cDNAs containing exon 5a. In silico analysis predicted that rs8330 creates an exon splice enhancer site that could favor exon 5a (over exon 5b) utilization during splicing. Finally, the prevalence of rs8330 was significantly lower (P 5 0.027, x2 test) in patients who had acute liver failure from unintentional acetaminophen overdose compared with patients with acute liver failure from other causes or a race- or ethnicitymatched population. Together, these findings suggest that rs8330 is an important determinant of acetaminophen glucuronidation and could affect an individual's risk for acetaminophen-induced liver injury.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||11|
|Journal||Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics|
|State||Published - May 2013|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine