Hyperviscosity syndrome (HVS) is a life-threatening syndrome caused by high concentrations of large plasma proteins like IgM, rheumatoid factor, and other immune complexes, leading to increased blood viscosity and symptoms such as visual abnormalities, neurological impairment, bleeding diathesis, and thrombosis. While Waldenström's macroglobulinemia accounts for 80% to 90% of cases, HVS may develop in other clinical settings characterized by elevations in plasma proteins. Limited evidence currently exists describing the safety and efficacy of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) for the management of HVS secondary to non-neoplastic conditions. We report a case of recurrent HVS associated with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and Felty syndrome that demonstrated improvement in clinical symptoms following initiation of TPE. These findings suggest that TPE may be utilized as an adjunct treatment option in patients with HVS secondary to autoimmune disorders.
- hyperviscosity syndrome
- juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
- rheumatoid factor
- therapeutic plasma exchange
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