The structural morphology of coronary stents (e.g. stent expansion, lumen scaffolding, strut apposition, tissue protrusion, side branch jailing, strut fracture), and the local hemodynamic environment after stent deployment are key determinants of procedural success and subsequent clinical outcomes. High-resolution intracoronary imaging has the potential to enable the geometrically accurate three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of coronary stents. The aim of this work was to present a novel algorithm for 3D stent reconstruction of coronary artery stents based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) and angiography, and test experimentally its accuracy, reproducibility, clinical feasibility, and ability to perform computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies. Our method has the following steps: 3D lumen reconstruction based on OCT and angiography, stent strut segmentation in OCT images, packaging, rotation and straightening of the segmented struts, planar unrolling of the segmented struts, planar stent wireframe reconstruction, rolling back of the planar stent wireframe to the 3D reconstructed lumen, and final stent volume reconstruction. We tested the accuracy and reproducibility of our method in stented patient-specific silicone models using micro-computed tomography (μCT) and stereoscopy as references. The clinical feasibility and CFD studies were performed in clinically stented coronary bifurcations. The experimental and clinical studies showed that our algorithm (1) can reproduce the complex spatial stent configuration with high precision and reproducibility, (2) is feasible in 3D reconstructing stents deployed in bifurcations, and (3) enables CFD studies to assess the local hemodynamic environment within the stent. Notably, the high accuracy of our algorithm was consistent across different stent designs and diameters. Our method coupled with patient-specific CFD studies can lay the ground for optimization of stenting procedures, patient-specific computational stenting simulations, and research and development of new stent scaffolds and stenting techniques.
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