TNFα and PTH utilize distinct mechanisms to induce IL-6 and RANKL expression with markedly different kinetics

Jia C. Dai, Ping He, Xin Chen, Edward M. Greenfield

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

42 Scopus citations

Abstract

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and tumor necrosis factorα (TNFα) are bone resorptive agents that upregulate interleukin-6 (IL-6) and RANKL production by osteoblasts. IL-6 mRNA expression induced by PTH is rapid and transient in osteoblasts both in vitro and in vivo. This study found that IL-6 secretion induced by PTH is also rapid and transient. The induction of RANKL mRNA by PTH is also rapid and transient although with an extended time course compared to that of IL-6 mRNA. In contrast, the effects of TNFα are biphasic. During the first 2 h of stimulation with TNFα, the responses are similar to those induced by PTH. This is followed by a period of relatively low IL-6 and RANKL mRNA levels and little IL-6 secretion. A late phase of increased IL-6 and RANKL mRNA expression occurs 12-24 h after stimulation with TNFα leading to a significant increase in IL-6 secretion. A similar biphasic pattern of activation of p38 MAP kinase is induced by TNFα. p38α/β activation is required for the increased RANKL mRNA during the early phase of stimulation by TNFα but not in the late phase. In contrast, p38α/β activation is not required for increased IL-6 mRNA or IL-6 protein secretion in either the early or late phases of stimulation by TNFα. Blocking the increases in IL-6 transcription completely eliminates IL-6 secretion induced during the early phases of stimulation by either PTH or TNFα. Consistent with the dependence on transcription, IL-6 mRNA is rapidly degraded with half-lives of 10-14 min following stimulation with either PTH or TNFα. In contrast to IL-6, RANKL mRNA is substantially more stable with half-lives of 40-60 min. Taken together, our results show that TNFα and PTH utilize distinct mechanisms to induce IL-6 and RANKL expression with markedly different kinetics. The more extensive effect of TNFα likely reflects that TNFα stimulates IL-6 production and bone resorption in pathological situations. In contrast, the less extensive effect of PTH likely reflects that it acts in physiological situations where it is important to minimize the potential adverse effects of high levels of IL-6 on bone and/or surrounding tissues.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)509-520
Number of pages12
JournalBone
Volume38
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2006
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Bone resorption
  • Cytokines
  • Immediate-early genes
  • Osteoblast
  • Parathyroid hormone
  • Tumor necrosis factor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Physiology
  • Histology

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'TNFα and PTH utilize distinct mechanisms to induce IL-6 and RANKL expression with markedly different kinetics'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this