Toll-like receptor 4 variant D299G induces features of neoplastic progression in Caco-2 intestinal cells and is associated with advanced human colon cancer

Annette Eyking, Birgit Ey, Michael Rünzi, Andres I. Roig, Henning Reis, Kurt W. Schmid, Guido Gerken, Daniel K. Podolsky, Elke Cario

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

56 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background & Aims: The Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 mediates homeostasis of the intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) barrier. We investigated the effects of TLR4-D299G on IEC functions. Methods: We engineered IECs (Caco-2) to stably overexpress hemagglutinin-tagged wild-type TLR4, TLR4-D299G, or TLR4-T399I. We performed gene expression profiling using DNA microarray analysis. Findings were confirmed by real-time, quantitative, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, immunoblot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, confocal immunofluorescence, and functional analyses. Tumorigenicity was tested using the CD1 nu/nu mice xenograft model. Human colon cancer specimens (N = 214) were genotyped and assessed for disease stage. Results: Caco-2 cells that expressed TLR4-D299G underwent the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and morphologic changes associated with tumor progression, whereas cells that expressed wild-type TLR4 or TLR4-T399I did not. Caco-2 cells that expressed TLR4-D299G had significant increases in expression levels of genes and proteins associated with inflammation and/or tumorigenesis compared with cells that expressed other forms of TLR4. The invasive activity of TLR4-D299G Caco-2 cells required Wnt-dependent activation of STAT3. In mice, intestinal xenograft tumors grew from Caco-2 cells that expressed TLR4-D299G, but not cells that expressed other forms of TLR4; tumor growth was blocked by a specific inhibitor of STAT3. Human colon adenocarcinomas from patients with TLR4-D299G were more frequently of an advanced stage (International Union Against Cancer [UICC] <III, 70% vs 46%; P =.0142) with metastasis (UICC IV, 42% vs 19%; P =.0065) than those with wild-type TLR4. Expression of STAT3 messenger RNA was higher among colonic adenocarcinomas with TLR4-D299G than those with wild-type TLR4. Conclusions: TLR4-D299G induces features of neoplastic progression in intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and associates with aggressive colon cancer in humans, implying a novel link between aberrant innate immunity and colonic cancerogenesis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2154-2165
Number of pages12
JournalGastroenterology
Volume141
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2011

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Toll-Like Receptor 4
Caco-2 Cells
Colonic Neoplasms
Epithelial Cells
Heterografts
Neoplasms
Adenocarcinoma
Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
Hemagglutinins
Gene Expression Profiling
Microarray Analysis
Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Innate Immunity
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Colon
Carcinogenesis
Homeostasis
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Neoplasm Metastasis

Keywords

  • Epithelium
  • Intestine
  • Signaling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology

Cite this

Toll-like receptor 4 variant D299G induces features of neoplastic progression in Caco-2 intestinal cells and is associated with advanced human colon cancer. / Eyking, Annette; Ey, Birgit; Rünzi, Michael; Roig, Andres I.; Reis, Henning; Schmid, Kurt W.; Gerken, Guido; Podolsky, Daniel K.; Cario, Elke.

In: Gastroenterology, Vol. 141, No. 6, 12.2011, p. 2154-2165.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Eyking, Annette ; Ey, Birgit ; Rünzi, Michael ; Roig, Andres I. ; Reis, Henning ; Schmid, Kurt W. ; Gerken, Guido ; Podolsky, Daniel K. ; Cario, Elke. / Toll-like receptor 4 variant D299G induces features of neoplastic progression in Caco-2 intestinal cells and is associated with advanced human colon cancer. In: Gastroenterology. 2011 ; Vol. 141, No. 6. pp. 2154-2165.
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abstract = "Background & Aims: The Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 mediates homeostasis of the intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) barrier. We investigated the effects of TLR4-D299G on IEC functions. Methods: We engineered IECs (Caco-2) to stably overexpress hemagglutinin-tagged wild-type TLR4, TLR4-D299G, or TLR4-T399I. We performed gene expression profiling using DNA microarray analysis. Findings were confirmed by real-time, quantitative, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, immunoblot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, confocal immunofluorescence, and functional analyses. Tumorigenicity was tested using the CD1 nu/nu mice xenograft model. Human colon cancer specimens (N = 214) were genotyped and assessed for disease stage. Results: Caco-2 cells that expressed TLR4-D299G underwent the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and morphologic changes associated with tumor progression, whereas cells that expressed wild-type TLR4 or TLR4-T399I did not. Caco-2 cells that expressed TLR4-D299G had significant increases in expression levels of genes and proteins associated with inflammation and/or tumorigenesis compared with cells that expressed other forms of TLR4. The invasive activity of TLR4-D299G Caco-2 cells required Wnt-dependent activation of STAT3. In mice, intestinal xenograft tumors grew from Caco-2 cells that expressed TLR4-D299G, but not cells that expressed other forms of TLR4; tumor growth was blocked by a specific inhibitor of STAT3. Human colon adenocarcinomas from patients with TLR4-D299G were more frequently of an advanced stage (International Union Against Cancer [UICC] <III, 70{\%} vs 46{\%}; P =.0142) with metastasis (UICC IV, 42{\%} vs 19{\%}; P =.0065) than those with wild-type TLR4. Expression of STAT3 messenger RNA was higher among colonic adenocarcinomas with TLR4-D299G than those with wild-type TLR4. Conclusions: TLR4-D299G induces features of neoplastic progression in intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and associates with aggressive colon cancer in humans, implying a novel link between aberrant innate immunity and colonic cancerogenesis.",
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AU - Roig, Andres I.

AU - Reis, Henning

AU - Schmid, Kurt W.

AU - Gerken, Guido

AU - Podolsky, Daniel K.

AU - Cario, Elke

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N2 - Background & Aims: The Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 mediates homeostasis of the intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) barrier. We investigated the effects of TLR4-D299G on IEC functions. Methods: We engineered IECs (Caco-2) to stably overexpress hemagglutinin-tagged wild-type TLR4, TLR4-D299G, or TLR4-T399I. We performed gene expression profiling using DNA microarray analysis. Findings were confirmed by real-time, quantitative, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, immunoblot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, confocal immunofluorescence, and functional analyses. Tumorigenicity was tested using the CD1 nu/nu mice xenograft model. Human colon cancer specimens (N = 214) were genotyped and assessed for disease stage. Results: Caco-2 cells that expressed TLR4-D299G underwent the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and morphologic changes associated with tumor progression, whereas cells that expressed wild-type TLR4 or TLR4-T399I did not. Caco-2 cells that expressed TLR4-D299G had significant increases in expression levels of genes and proteins associated with inflammation and/or tumorigenesis compared with cells that expressed other forms of TLR4. The invasive activity of TLR4-D299G Caco-2 cells required Wnt-dependent activation of STAT3. In mice, intestinal xenograft tumors grew from Caco-2 cells that expressed TLR4-D299G, but not cells that expressed other forms of TLR4; tumor growth was blocked by a specific inhibitor of STAT3. Human colon adenocarcinomas from patients with TLR4-D299G were more frequently of an advanced stage (International Union Against Cancer [UICC] <III, 70% vs 46%; P =.0142) with metastasis (UICC IV, 42% vs 19%; P =.0065) than those with wild-type TLR4. Expression of STAT3 messenger RNA was higher among colonic adenocarcinomas with TLR4-D299G than those with wild-type TLR4. Conclusions: TLR4-D299G induces features of neoplastic progression in intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and associates with aggressive colon cancer in humans, implying a novel link between aberrant innate immunity and colonic cancerogenesis.

AB - Background & Aims: The Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 mediates homeostasis of the intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) barrier. We investigated the effects of TLR4-D299G on IEC functions. Methods: We engineered IECs (Caco-2) to stably overexpress hemagglutinin-tagged wild-type TLR4, TLR4-D299G, or TLR4-T399I. We performed gene expression profiling using DNA microarray analysis. Findings were confirmed by real-time, quantitative, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, immunoblot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, confocal immunofluorescence, and functional analyses. Tumorigenicity was tested using the CD1 nu/nu mice xenograft model. Human colon cancer specimens (N = 214) were genotyped and assessed for disease stage. Results: Caco-2 cells that expressed TLR4-D299G underwent the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and morphologic changes associated with tumor progression, whereas cells that expressed wild-type TLR4 or TLR4-T399I did not. Caco-2 cells that expressed TLR4-D299G had significant increases in expression levels of genes and proteins associated with inflammation and/or tumorigenesis compared with cells that expressed other forms of TLR4. The invasive activity of TLR4-D299G Caco-2 cells required Wnt-dependent activation of STAT3. In mice, intestinal xenograft tumors grew from Caco-2 cells that expressed TLR4-D299G, but not cells that expressed other forms of TLR4; tumor growth was blocked by a specific inhibitor of STAT3. Human colon adenocarcinomas from patients with TLR4-D299G were more frequently of an advanced stage (International Union Against Cancer [UICC] <III, 70% vs 46%; P =.0142) with metastasis (UICC IV, 42% vs 19%; P =.0065) than those with wild-type TLR4. Expression of STAT3 messenger RNA was higher among colonic adenocarcinomas with TLR4-D299G than those with wild-type TLR4. Conclusions: TLR4-D299G induces features of neoplastic progression in intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and associates with aggressive colon cancer in humans, implying a novel link between aberrant innate immunity and colonic cancerogenesis.

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