Toll-like receptors

Eva Marie Y Moresco, Diantha LaVine, Bruce Beutler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

249 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Beginning with the physical barrier presented by the epithelium, infectious agents such as viruses and bacteria encounter an array of cellular and molecular countermeasures that evolved within the host to resist them. Host immune responses are of two types, termed innate and adaptive. Immediate defensive responses, which include inflammation, phagocytosis of pathogens, and recruitment of a variety of immune cells, are employed against all classes of microbe, irrespective of prior exposure, and are collectively termed the innate immune response. Innate immunity is evolutionarily ancient, and selected mechanisms are known to be conserved from plants to humans. In contrast, the adaptive immune response is mobilized over a more protracted timescale, is influenced by prior exposure, and, by virtue of antigen-specific receptors generated through somatic DNA recombination within lymphoid clones, is highly specific at the molecular level, often to the point of specificity for a particular microbial species. Adaptive immunity evolved relatively recently and exists only in vertebrates. In mammals, the immune response encompasses the innate and adaptive responses, and, although cross-talk occurs between them, each can be carried out independently by distinct cellular and molecular mechanisms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalCurrent Biology
Volume21
Issue number13
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 12 2011

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Mammals
Toll-Like Receptors
Adaptive Immunity
Pathogens
Viruses
Innate Immunity
Bacteria
Antigens
DNA
Architectural Accessibility
Antigen Receptors
pathogens
phagocytosis
Phagocytosis
Genetic Recombination
Vertebrates
epithelium
Epithelium
Clone Cells
inflammation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

Cite this

Toll-like receptors. / Moresco, Eva Marie Y; LaVine, Diantha; Beutler, Bruce.

In: Current Biology, Vol. 21, No. 13, 12.07.2011.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Moresco, Eva Marie Y ; LaVine, Diantha ; Beutler, Bruce. / Toll-like receptors. In: Current Biology. 2011 ; Vol. 21, No. 13.
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