This study aimed to evaluate the use of tolvaptan in a consecutive series of pediatric patients with heart failure. Patients 18 years of age or younger with heart failure prescribed tolvaptan between January 2009 and October 2011 were retrospectively identified at Children's Medical Center Dallas. Laboratory parameters, urine output, fluid balance, and concurrent medications were recorded at baseline and at specified intervals after a single dose of tolvaptan. The 28 patients in the study had a median age of 2 years (range 1 month-18 years). The median tolvaptan dose administered was 0.3 mg/kg (range 0.1-1.3 mg/kg). The study patients had a median baseline serum sodium concentration of 127 mmol/L, and the increases in sodium were 2.5 mmol/L at 12 h, 5 mmol/L at 24 h, 4 mmol/L at 48 h, and 5 mmol/L at 72 h (all p < 0.001). Urine output was increased at 24 h (p < 0.001) and 48 h (p = 0.03), and fluid balance changes were significantly different at 24 h (p = 0.004). The changes in potassium, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine were not significant at any interval. When controlling for traditional diuretic therapy, increases in serum sodium concentration and urine output remained statistically significant. A single dose of tolvaptan increased serum sodium concentrations for the majority in this small series of pediatric patients with heart failure. These results suggest that tolvaptan can be safely and effectively administered to pediatric patients. Prospective, randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of its use further.
- Heart failure
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine