Salicylihalamide A is the first member of a growing class of macrocyclic salicylate natural products that induce a variety of interesting phenotypes in cultured mammalian cells. Salicylihalamide A was reported to be a unique and highly differential cytotoxin and a potent inhibitor of the mammalian vacuolar (H+)ATPase. The total synthesis of both enantiomers of salicylihalamide A, a revision of the absolute configuration assigned to the natural product, and extensive structure-function studies with synthetic salicylihalamide variants are reported. These studies were possible only due to a highly efficient synthetic strategy that features (1) a remarkably E-selective ring-closing olefin metathesis to construct the 12-membered benzolactone skeleton 29, (2) a mild stereocontrolled elaboration to E-alkenyl isocyanate 41, and (3) addition of carbon, oxygen, and sulfur nucleophiles to isocyanate 41 to obtain salicylihalamide A and congeners. We demonstrate for the first time that salicylihalamide A is a potent inhibitor of fully purified reconstituted V-ATPase from bovine brain, and have identified several similarly potent side chain modified derivatives, including salicylihalamide dimers 43-45. In combination, these studies have laid the foundation for ongoing studies aimed at a comprehensive understanding of salicylihalamide's mode-of-action, of potential relevance to the development of lead compounds for the treatment of osteoporosis and cancer.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry