Toxicology and pharmacokinetics of DTGM, a fusion toxin consisting of a truncated diphtheria toxin (DT388) linked to human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, in cynomolgus monkeys

Charlotte E. Hotchkiss, Philip D. Hall, J. Mark Cline, Mark C. Willingham, Robert J. Kreitman, Jean Gardin, Amy Latimer, Jason Ramage, Theodore Feely, Stephen DeLatte, Edward P. Tagge, Arthur E. Frankel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

26 Scopus citations

Abstract

We developed a fusion toxin consisting of the catalytic and translocation domains of diphtheria toxin linked to human granulocyte- macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) (DTGM) for the treatment of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Our goal in this study was to determine the toxicity and pharmacokinetics of DTGM in cynomolgus monkeys (Macacca fascicularis), which possess cross-reactive GM-CSF receptors. Four groups of young adult monkeys (6 males and 12 females) were treated with five daily bolus iv infusions of 1, 5, 7.5, and 10 μg/kg DTGM. Monkeys (2 males and 2 females) treated at 1 μg/kg/day showed no significant side effects. Monkeys (2 males and 2 females) treated at 5 mg/kg/day showed Grade 1-2 thrombopenia (NCI common toxicity criteria) on day 9. In contrast, monkeys (6 females) treated at 7.5 μg/kg/day developed Grade 3 neutropenia, Grade 1-2 thrombopenia, Grade 1-3 anemia, and Grade 1-3 hypoalbuminemia. The neutropenia developed by day 4 in the 7.5 μg/kg/day monkeys and by day 3 or 5 in the 10 μg/kg/day monkeys and resolved in both groups by day 9, but the thrombopenia, anemia, and hypoalbuminemia persisted until day 16. Monkeys (2 male and 2 female) treated with 10 μg/kg/day showed Grade 4 neutropenia that resolved by day 8 and Grade 2-3 anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and thrombopenia. Three of the animals developed sepsis. DTGM plasma half-life was 30 min with a peak concentration of 0.1 μg/mL or 2 nM (1000-fold higher than the IC50 in vitro for AML blasts). Immune responses were minimal in all animals tested at 14 and 28 days with anti-DTGM levels < 1 μg/mL. All four animals at 10 μg/kg died or were euthanized, and necropsies were performed. Animals necropsied on days 4 and 6 showed marked apoptosis and hypoplasia in the marrow, which was completely resolved for animals necropsied on day 9. No injury to other organs, including kidney, heart, liver, central nervous system, or lung, was seen. The drug was selectively toxic to malignant or differentiated myeloid cells with little toxicity to myeloid progenitors or other organs. Minimal effects in nontarget tissues make DTGM a promising candidate chemotherapeutic agent.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)152-160
Number of pages9
JournalToxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Volume158
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 15 1999

Keywords

  • Acute myeloid leukemia
  • Diphtheria toxin
  • Fusion toxin
  • GM-CSF

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Toxicology and pharmacokinetics of DTGM, a fusion toxin consisting of a truncated diphtheria toxin (DT388) linked to human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, in cynomolgus monkeys'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this