Transcranial magnetic stimulation potentiates glutamatergic neurotransmission in depressed adolescents

Paul E. Croarkin, Paul A. Nakonezny, Christopher A. Wall, Lauren L. Murphy, Shirlene M. Sampson, Mark A. Frye, John D. Port

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Scopus citations

Abstract

Abnormalities in glutamate neurotransmission may have a role in the pathophysiology of adolescent depression. The present pilot study examined changes in cortical glutamine/glutamate ratios in depressed adolescents receiving high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Ten adolescents with treatment-refractory major depressive disorder received up to 30 sessions of 10-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation at 120% motor threshold with 3000 pulses per session applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Baseline, posttreatment, and 6-month follow-up proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy scans of the anterior cingulate cortex and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were collected at 3 T with 8-cm3 voxels. Glutamate metabolites were quantified with 2 distinct proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy sequences in each brain region. After repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and at 6 months of follow-up, glutamine/glutamate ratios increased in the anterior cingulate cortex and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex with both measurements. The increase in the glutamine/glutamate ratio reached statistical significance with the TE-optimized PRESS sequence in the anterior cingulate cortex. Glutamine/glutamate ratios increased in conjunction with depressive symptom improvement. This reached statistical significance with the TE-optimized PRESS sequence in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may modulate glutamate neurochemistry in depressed adolescents.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)25-33
Number of pages9
JournalPsychiatry Research - Neuroimaging
Volume247
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 30 2016

Keywords

  • Adolescent depression
  • Glutamate
  • Glutamine
  • Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy
  • Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Neuroscience (miscellaneous)

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