Transforming growth factor-β promotes recruitment of bone marrow cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells through stimulation of MCP-1 production in vascular smooth muscle cells

Fan Zhang, Shirling Tsai, Kaori Kato, Dai Yamanouchi, Chunjie Wang, Shahin Rafii, Bo Liu, K. Craig Kent

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

100 Scopus citations

Abstract

Bone marrow-derived progenitor cells have recently been shown to be involved in the development of intimal hyperplasia after vascular injury. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) has profound stimulatory effects on intimal hyperplasia, but it is unknown whether these effects involve progenitor cell recruitment. In this study we found that although TGF-β had no direct effect on progenitor cell recruitment, conditioned media derived from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) stimulated with TGF-β induced migration of both total bone marrow (BM) cells and BM-mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and also induced MSC differentiation into smooth muscle like cells. Furthermore, overexpression of the signaling molecule Smad3 in VSCM via adenovirus-mediated gene transfer (AdSmad3) enhanced the TGF-β's chemotactic effect. Microarray analysis of VSMC stimulated by TGF-β/ AdSmad3 revealed monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) as a likely factor responsible for progenitor cell recruitment. We then demonstrated that TGF-β through Smad3 phosphorylation induced a robust expression of MCP-1 in VSMC. Recombinant MCP-1 mimicked the stimulatory effect of conditioned media on BM and MSC migration. In the rat carotid injury model, Smad3 overexpression significantly increased MCP-1 expression after vascular injury, consistent with our in vitro results. Interestingly, TGF-β/Smad3-induced MCP-1 was completely blocked by both Ro-32-0432 and rotterlin, suggesting protein kinase C-δ (PKCδ) may play a role in TGF-β/Smad3-induced MCP-1 expression. In summary, our data demonstrate that TGF-β, through Smad3 and PKCδ, stimulates VSMC production of MCP-1, which is a chemoattractant for bone marrow-derived cells, specifically MSC. Manipulation of this signaling system may provide a novel approach to inhibition of intimal hyperplasia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)17564-17574
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume284
Issue number26
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 26 2009

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

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