Transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy (ATTR-CM) is a progressive, life-threatening disease characterized by deposition of insoluble amyloid fibrils in the myocardium, resulting in cardiac structural and functional abnormalities and ultimately heart failure. Disease frequency is reportedly lower in women than men, but sex-related differences have not been well established. We conducted a systematic literature review (SLR), based on PRISMA-P guidelines and registered with PROSPERO, to assess whether the epidemiology and clinical presentation of ATTR-CM differ between women and men. MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane databases and selected conference proceedings were searched (August 16, 2019) to identify observational and clinical studies reporting sex-specific data for patients with wild-type or hereditary ATTR-CM. Of 193 publications satisfying final eligibility criteria, 69 studies were included in our pooled analysis. Among the 4669 patients with ATTR-CM analyzed, 791 (17%) were women, including 174 (9%), 366 (29%), and 251 (18%) in studies of wild-type, hereditary, and undefined ATTR-CM, respectively. Data available on disease characteristics were limited and very heterogeneous, but trends suggested some cardiac structural/functional differences, i.e., lower interventricular septal and posterior wall thickness and left ventricular (LV) end diastolic diameter, and higher LV ejection fractions, in women versus men across ATTR-CM subtypes. Because LV wall thickness > 12 mm is generally the suggested threshold for ATTR-CM diagnosis in both sexes, smaller cardiac anatomy in women with the disease may lead to underdiagnosis. Additional research and studies are needed to elucidate potential disparities between sexes in ATTR-CM frequency, clinical characteristics, and underlying biological mechanisms. This study was registered within the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) database of the University of York (CRD42019146995).
- Heart failure
- Transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine