Treatment outcomes for patients with Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS CoV) infection at a coronavirus referral center in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Mohammed Al Ghamdi, Khalid M. Alghamdi, Yasmeen Ghandoora, Ameera Alzahrani, Fatmah Salah, Abdulmoatani Alsulami, Mayada F. Bawayan, Dhananjay Vaidya, Trish M. Perl, Geeta Sood

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Abstract

Background: Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a poorly understood disease with no known treatments. We describe the clinical features and treatment outcomes of patients with laboratory confirmed MERS-CoV at a regional referral center in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: In 2014, a retrospective chart review was performed on patients with a laboratory confirmed diagnosis of MERS-CoV to determine clinical and treatment characteristics associated with death. Confounding was evaluated and a multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess the independent effect of treatments administered. Results: Fifty-one patients had an overall mortality of 37 %. Most patients were male (78 %) with a mean age of 54 years. Almost a quarter of the patients were healthcare workers (23.5 %) and 41 % had a known exposure to another person with MERS-CoV. Survival was associated with male gender, working as a healthcare worker, history of hypertension, vomiting on admission, elevated respiratory rate, abnormal lung exam, elevated alanine transaminase (ALT), clearance of MERS-CoV on repeat PCR polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, and mycophenolate mofetil treatment. Survival was reduced in the presence of coronary artery disease, hypotension, hypoxemia, CXR (chest X-ray) abnormalities, leukocytosis, creatinine >1.5 mg/dL, thrombocytopenia, anemia, and renal failure. In a multivariate analysis of treatments administered, severity of illness was the greatest predictor of reduced survival. Conclusions: Care for patients with MERS-CoV remains a challenge. In this retrospective cohort, interferon beta and mycophenolate mofetil treatment were predictors of increased survival in the univariate analysis. Severity of illness was the greatest predictor of reduced survival in the multivariate analysis. Larger randomized trials are needed to better evaluate the efficacy of these treatment regimens for MERS-CoV.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number174
JournalBMC Infectious Diseases
Volume16
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 21 2016

Fingerprint

Coronavirus Infections
Coronavirus
Saudi Arabia
Referral and Consultation
Survival
Mycophenolic Acid
Therapeutics
Multivariate Analysis
Delivery of Health Care
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Clinical Laboratory Techniques
Interferon-beta
Leukocytosis
Respiratory Rate
Alanine Transaminase
Thrombocytopenia
Hypotension
Vomiting
Renal Insufficiency
Anemia

Keywords

  • Coronavirus
  • MERS CoV
  • Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus
  • Survival
  • Treatment outcome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Treatment outcomes for patients with Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS CoV) infection at a coronavirus referral center in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. / Al Ghamdi, Mohammed; Alghamdi, Khalid M.; Ghandoora, Yasmeen; Alzahrani, Ameera; Salah, Fatmah; Alsulami, Abdulmoatani; Bawayan, Mayada F.; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Perl, Trish M.; Sood, Geeta.

In: BMC Infectious Diseases, Vol. 16, No. 1, 174, 21.04.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Al Ghamdi, Mohammed ; Alghamdi, Khalid M. ; Ghandoora, Yasmeen ; Alzahrani, Ameera ; Salah, Fatmah ; Alsulami, Abdulmoatani ; Bawayan, Mayada F. ; Vaidya, Dhananjay ; Perl, Trish M. ; Sood, Geeta. / Treatment outcomes for patients with Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS CoV) infection at a coronavirus referral center in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In: BMC Infectious Diseases. 2016 ; Vol. 16, No. 1.
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AU - Alzahrani, Ameera

AU - Salah, Fatmah

AU - Alsulami, Abdulmoatani

AU - Bawayan, Mayada F.

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AB - Background: Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a poorly understood disease with no known treatments. We describe the clinical features and treatment outcomes of patients with laboratory confirmed MERS-CoV at a regional referral center in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: In 2014, a retrospective chart review was performed on patients with a laboratory confirmed diagnosis of MERS-CoV to determine clinical and treatment characteristics associated with death. Confounding was evaluated and a multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess the independent effect of treatments administered. Results: Fifty-one patients had an overall mortality of 37 %. Most patients were male (78 %) with a mean age of 54 years. Almost a quarter of the patients were healthcare workers (23.5 %) and 41 % had a known exposure to another person with MERS-CoV. Survival was associated with male gender, working as a healthcare worker, history of hypertension, vomiting on admission, elevated respiratory rate, abnormal lung exam, elevated alanine transaminase (ALT), clearance of MERS-CoV on repeat PCR polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, and mycophenolate mofetil treatment. Survival was reduced in the presence of coronary artery disease, hypotension, hypoxemia, CXR (chest X-ray) abnormalities, leukocytosis, creatinine >1.5 mg/dL, thrombocytopenia, anemia, and renal failure. In a multivariate analysis of treatments administered, severity of illness was the greatest predictor of reduced survival. Conclusions: Care for patients with MERS-CoV remains a challenge. In this retrospective cohort, interferon beta and mycophenolate mofetil treatment were predictors of increased survival in the univariate analysis. Severity of illness was the greatest predictor of reduced survival in the multivariate analysis. Larger randomized trials are needed to better evaluate the efficacy of these treatment regimens for MERS-CoV.

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