Tumor budding is associated with an increased risk of lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in superficial esophageal adenocarcinoma

Michael S. Landau, Steven M. Hastings, Tyler J. Foxwell, James D. Luketich, Katie S. Nason, Jon M. Davison

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations

Abstract

The treatment approach for superficial (stage T1) esophageal adenocarcinoma critically depends on the pre-operative assessment of metastatic risk. Part of that assessment involves evaluation of the primary tumor for pathologic characteristics known to predict nodal metastasis: depth of invasion (intramucosal vs submucosal), angiolymphatic invasion, tumor grade, and tumor size. Tumor budding is a histologic pattern that is associated with poor prognosis in early-stage colorectal adenocarcinoma and a predictor of nodal metastasis in T1 colorectal adenocarcinoma. In a retrospective study, we used a semi-quantitative histologic scoring system to categorize 210 surgically resected, superficial (stage T1) esophageal adenocarcinomas according to the extent of tumor budding (none, focal, and extensive) and also evaluated other known risk factors for nodal metastasis, including depth of invasion, angiolymphatic invasion, tumor grade, and tumor size. We assessed the risk of nodal metastasis associated with tumor budding in univariate analyses and controlled for other risk factors in a multivariate logistic regression model. In all, 41% (24 out of 59) of tumors with extensive tumor budding (tumor budding in ≥3 20X microscopic fields) were metastatic to regional lymph nodes, compared with 10% (12 out of 117) of tumors with no tumor budding, and 15% (5 out of 34) of tumors with focal tumor budding (P<0.001). When controlling for all pathologic risk factors in a multivariate analysis, extensive tumor budding remains an independent risk factor for lymph node metastasis in superficial esophageal adenocarcinoma associated with a 2.5-fold increase (95% CI=1.1-6.3, P=0.039) in the risk of nodal metastasis. Extensive tumor budding is also a poor prognostic factor with respect to overall survival and time to recurrence in univariate and multivariate analyses. As an independent risk factor for nodal metastasis and poor prognosis after esophagectomy, tumor budding should be evaluated in superficial (T1) esophageal adenocarcinoma as a part of a comprehensive pathologic risk assessment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1578-1589
Number of pages12
JournalModern Pathology
Volume27
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 11 2014
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • adenocarcinoma
  • esophagus
  • tumor budding

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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