Tumor lysis syndrome is a critical illness characterized by massive tumor cell death leading to severe hyperuricemia, hyperphosphatemia, hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia, and acute renal failure in patients with rapidly growing cancers (especially Burkitt's lymphomas with extensive abdominal bulk). It may be preventable with allopurinol therapy combined with aggressive intravenous fluid therapy aimed at establishing an ongoing alkaline diuresis. In most cases renal failure is completely reversible; however, fatal hyperkalemia and volume overload may develop. Therefore, aggressive management with hemodialysis often is necessary to maintain life support while tumor burden is controlled with cytoreductive therapy. Early recognition and management by a team approach in the intensive care unit where careful monitoring is available serves to forestall severe renal failure, thereby improving short-term prognosis in susceptible patients.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Seminars in Nephrology|
|Publication status||Published - 1993|
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