Ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic digestion (USAED) for total elemental determination and elemental speciation: A tutorial

G. Vale, R. Rial-Otero, A. Mota, L. Fonseca, J. L. Capelo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

46 Scopus citations


Due to its potential as sample treatment for Analytical Chemistry, the Ultrasonic-Assisted Enzymatic Digestion (USAED) for total elemental determination and elemental speciation is described under the most recent achievements published in literature, focusing on the variables that critically affect the performance of this relatively new sample treatment, such as the type of enzymes or the type of ultrasonic system used for the acceleration of the solid-liquid extraction process. Moreover, analytical chemists are aware of common errors produced in data interpretation concerning USAED. In addition, a guide for the rapid application of this methodology is also provided along with detailed explanations. Finally, future trends regarding USAED are also given and commented.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)872-884
Number of pages13
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - May 30 2008



  • Elemental determination
  • Elemental speciation
  • Enzymes
  • Tutorial
  • Ultrasonication

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)

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