Surgical skills increasingly are taught in training laboratories outside the operating room. This change in paradigm has driven the development of surrogate training models for a wide range of surgical procedures. In urology, a growing number of procedures using minimally invasive techniques are performed. Consequently, the development of simulators for training and assessment represents a growing need. In this article, we review the currently available ureteroscopic simulators, including a critical assessment of relevant validation studies for each.
- Computer simulation
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