PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe the options and recent developments in the urologic treatment of nephrolithiasis in children. The prevalence of nephrolithiasis in children has increased over time. The urologic treatment of nephrolithiasis ranges from observation to medical expulsive therapy with an alpha blocker for a stone in a ureter to a variety of procedures for stone removal. RECENT FINDINGS: Observation for small, asymptomatic renal stones is a reasonable strategy in children. Medical expulsive therapy with an alpha blocker may have a beneficial effect for passage of ureteral stones in children. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) remains an important treatment for nephrolithiasis in children. Advances in ureteroscopy with clearer digital imaging and single use ureteroscopes have made ureteroscopy more attractive. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is a more invasive treatment modality but remains a good choice for children with large-stone burdens and instruments are getting smaller. Open or laparoscopic stone surgery should be reserved for unique cases. SUMMARY: Nephrolithiasis is increasing in children with differing urologic management options depending on the clinical scenario. A shared decision-making process with discussion of risks and benefits should be used to help patients and families choose a treatment option.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health