Enteric viruses infect the gastrointestinal tract and bacteria can promote replication and transmission of several enteric viruses. Viruses can be inactivated by exposure to heat or bleach, but poliovirus, coxsackievirus B3, and reovirus can be stabilized by bacteria or bacterial polysaccharides, limiting inactivation and aiding transmission. We previously demonstrated that certain N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)-containing polysaccharides can stabilize poliovirus. However, the detailed virus-glycan binding specificity and glycan chain length requirements, and thus the mechanism of virion stabilization, has been unclear. A previous limitation was our lack of defined-length glycans to probe mechanisms and consequences of virus-glycan interactions. Here, we generated a panel of polysaccharides and oligosaccharides to determine the properties required for binding and stabilization of poliovirus. Poliovirus virions are non-enveloped icosahedral 30 nm particles with 60 copies of each of four capsid proteins, VP1-4. VP1 surrounds the fivefold axis and our past work indicates that this region likely contains the glycan binding site. We found that relatively short GlcNAc oligosaccharides, such as a six unit GlcNAc oligomer, can bind poliovirus but fail to enhance virion stability. Virion stabilization required binding of long GlcNAc polymers of greater than 20 units. Our data suggest a model where GlcNAc polymers greater than 20 units bind and bridge adjacent fivefold axes, thus aiding capsid rigidity and stability. This study provides a deeper understanding of enteric virus-bacterial glycan interactions, which is important for virion environmental stability and transmission. Importance Enteric viruses are transmitted through the fecal-oral route, but how enteric viruses survive in the environment is unclear. Previously, we found that bacterial polysaccharides enhance poliovirus stability against heat or bleach inactivation, but the specific molecular requirements have been unknown. Here we showed that certain short chain oligosaccharides can bind to poliovirus but do not increase virion stability. Long chain polysaccharides bind and may bridge adjacent sites on the viral surface, thus increasing capsid rigidity and stability. This work defines the unique interactions of poliovirus and glycans, which provides insight into virion environmental stability and transmission.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)