Use of botulinum toxin type A and type B for spasticity in upper and lower limbs

Kathleen R. Bell, Faren Williams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Scopus citations


BT is likely effective in controlling spasticity in the smaller muscles of the arm and hand, although there has been only one large controlled trial. For lower limb spasticity, the outcomes are more mixed. No large randomized, controlled trials have been done, and the larger size of the muscles results in a decreased ability to treat widespread spasticity. For more focal treatment in the legs and feet, however, and when combined with other denervating agents or physical modalities, BT is probably effective. Careful analysis is warranted before performing any chemodenervation on a limb muscle or muscles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)821-835
Number of pages15
JournalPhysical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2003


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rehabilitation

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