Use of Indicator Dilution Principle to Evaluate Accuracy of Arterial Input Function Measured With Low-Dose Ultrafast Prostate Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI

Shiyang Wang, Xiaobing Fan, Yue Zhang, Milica Medved, Dianning He, Ambereen Yousuf, Ernest Jamison, Aytekin Oto, Gregory S. Karczmar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Accurately measuring arterial input function (AIF) is essential for quantitative analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We used the indicator dilution principle to evaluate the accuracy of AIF measured directly from an artery following a low-dose contrast media ultrafast DCE-MRI. In total, 15 patients with biopsy-confirmed localized prostate cancers were recruited. Cardiac MRI (CMRI) and ultrafast DCE-MRI were acquired on a Philips 3 T Ingenia scanner. The AIF was measured at iliac arties following injection of a low-dose (0.015 mmol/kg) gadolinium (Gd) contrast media. The cardiac output (CO) from CMRI (COCMRI) was calculated from the difference in ventricular volume at diastole and systole measured on the short axis of heart. The CO from DCE-MRI (CODCE) was also calculated from the AIF and dose of the contrast media used. A correlation test and Bland-Altman plot were used to compare COCMRI and CODCE. The average (±standard deviation [SD]) area under the curve measured directly from local AIF was 0.219 ± 0.07 mM·min. The average (±SD) COCMRI and CODCE were 6.52 ± 1.47 L/min and 6.88 ± 1.64 L/min, respectively. There was a strong positive correlation (r = 0.82, P < .01) and good agreement between COCMRI and CODCE. The CODCE is consistent with the reference standard COCMRI. This indicates that the AIF can be measured accurately from an artery with ultrafast DCE-MRI following injection of a low-dose contrast media.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)260-265
Number of pages6
JournalTomography (Ann Arbor, Mich.)
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1 2019
Externally publishedYes



  • arterial input function
  • cardiac output
  • indicator dilution principle
  • low dose DCE-MRI

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