The ExacTrac X-Ray 6D image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) system will be described and its performance evaluated. The system is mainly an integration of 2 subsystems: (1) an infrared (IR)-based optical positioning system (ExacTrac) and (2) a radiographic kV x-ray imaging system (X-Ray 6D). The infrared system consists of 2 IR cameras, which are used to monitor reflective body markers placed on the patient's skin to assist in patient initial setup, and an IR reflective reference star, which is attached to the treatment couch and can assist in couch movement with spatial resolution to better than 0.3 mm. The radiographic kV devices consist of 2 oblique x-ray imagers to obtain high-quality radiographs for patient position verification and adjustment. The position verification is made by fusing the radiographs with the simulation CT images using either 3 degree-of-freedom (3D) or 6 degree-of-freedom (6D) fusion algorithms. The position adjustment is performed using the infrared system according to the verification results. The reliability of the fusion algorithm will be described based on phantom and patient studies. The results indicated that the 6D fusion method is better compared to the 3D method if there are rotational deviations between the simulation and setup positions. Recently, the system has been augmented with the capabilities for image-guided positioning of targets in motion due to respiration and for gated treatment of those targets. The infrared markers provide a respiratory signal for tracking and gating of the treatment beam, with the x-ray system providing periodic confirmation of patient position relative to the gating window throughout the duration of the gated delivery.
- Image fusion
- Image-guided radiation therapy
- Respiratory gating
- X-ray guidance
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging