Using convolutional neural networks to automatically detect eye-blink artifacts in magnetoencephalography without resorting to electrooculography

Prabhat Garg, Elizabeth Davenport, Gowtham Murugesan, Ben Wagner, Christopher Whitlow, Joseph A Maldjian, Albert Montillo

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Magnetoencephelography (MEG) is a functional neuroimaging tool that records the magnetic fields induced by neuronal activity; however, signal from muscle activity often corrupts the data. Eye-blinks are one of the most common types of muscle artifact. They can be recorded by affixing eye proximal electrodes, as in electrooculography (EOG), however this complicates patient preparation and decreases comfort. Moreover, it can induce further muscular artifacts from facial twitching. We propose an EOG free, data driven approach. We begin with Independent Component Analysis (ICA), a well-known preprocessing approach that factors observed signal into statistically independent components. When applied to MEG, ICA can help separate neuronal components from non-neuronal ones, however, the components are randomly ordered. Thus, we develop a method to assign one of two labels, non-eye-blink or eye-blink, to each component. Our contributions are two-fold. First, we develop a 10-layer Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), which directly labels eye-blink artifacts. Second, we visualize the learned spatial features using attention mapping, to reveal what it has learned and bolster confidence in the method’s ability to generalize to unseen data. We acquired 8-min, eyes open, resting state MEG from 44 subjects. We trained our method on the spatial maps from ICA of 14 subjects selected randomly with expertly labeled ground truth. We then tested on the remaining 30 subjects. Our approach achieves a test classification accuracy of 99.67%, sensitivity: 97.62%, specificity: 99.77%, and ROC AUC: 98.69%. We also show the learned spatial features correspond to those human experts typically use which corroborates our model’s validity. This work (1) facilitates creation of fully automated processing pipelines in MEG that need to remove motion artifacts related to eye blinks, and (2) potentially obviates the use of additional EOG electrodes for the recording of eye-blinks in MEG studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMedical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention − MICCAI 2017 - 20th International Conference, Proceedings
EditorsLena Maier-Hein, Alfred Franz, Pierre Jannin, Simon Duchesne, Maxime Descoteaux, D. Louis Collins
PublisherSpringer Verlag
Pages374-381
Number of pages8
ISBN (Print)9783319661780
DOIs
StatePublished - 2017
Event20th International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, MICCAI 2017 - Quebec City, Canada
Duration: Sep 11 2017Sep 13 2017

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume10435 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349

Other

Other20th International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, MICCAI 2017
CountryCanada
CityQuebec City
Period9/11/179/13/17

Keywords

  • Artifact
  • Automatic
  • CNN
  • Deep learning
  • EOG
  • Eye-Blink
  • MEG

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Computer Science(all)

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  • Cite this

    Garg, P., Davenport, E., Murugesan, G., Wagner, B., Whitlow, C., Maldjian, J. A., & Montillo, A. (2017). Using convolutional neural networks to automatically detect eye-blink artifacts in magnetoencephalography without resorting to electrooculography. In L. Maier-Hein, A. Franz, P. Jannin, S. Duchesne, M. Descoteaux, & D. L. Collins (Eds.), Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention − MICCAI 2017 - 20th International Conference, Proceedings (pp. 374-381). (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics); Vol. 10435 LNCS). Springer Verlag. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-66179-7_43