Background: As it addresses both technical and nontechnical skills, simulation-based training is playing an increasingly important role in surgery. In addition to the focus on skill acquisition, it is also important to ensure that surgeons are able to perform a variety of tasks in unique and challenging situations. These situations include responding to mass casualties, dealing with disease outbreaks, and preparing for wartime missions. Simulation-based training can be a valuable training modality in these situations, as it allows opportunities to practice and prepare for high-risk and often low-frequency events. Methods: During the 8th Annual Meeting of the Consortium of the American College of Surgeons-Accredited Education Institutes in March 2015, a multidisciplinary panel was assembled to discuss how simulation can be used to prepare the surgical community for such high-risk events. Conclusion: An overview of how simulation has been used to address needs in each of these situations is presented.
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