Validity of a modified Parkinson's disease screening questionnaire in India: Effects of literacy of participants and medical training of screeners and implications for screening efforts in developing countries

Nagaraja Sarangmath, Rohini Rattihalli, Mona Ragothaman, Gururaj Gopalkrishna, Subbakrishna Doddaballapur, Elan D. Louis, Uday B. Muthane

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Scopus citations

Abstract

The prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD) is low among Indians, except in the Parsis. Data for Indians come from studies using different screening tools and criteria to detect PD. An epidemiological study in India, which has nearly a billion people, more than 18 spoken languages, and varying levels of literacy, requires development and validation of a screening tool for PD. The objectives of this study are to (1) validate a modified version of a widely used screening questionnaire for PD to suit the needs of the Indian population; (2) compare the use of a nonmedical assistant (NMA) with the use of a medical person during screening; and (3) compare the effect of literacy of participants on the validity of the screening tool. The validity of the questionnaire was tested on 125 participants from a home for the elderly. NMAs of similar background and medical personnel administered the modified screening questionnaire. A movement disorder neurologist blind to the responses on the questionnaire, examined participants independently and diagnosed if participants had PD. The questionnaire was validated in the movement disorders clinic, on known PD patients and their family members without PD. In the movement disorders clinic, sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaire were 100% and 89%, respectively. Fifty-seven participants were included for analysis. The questionnaire had a higher sensitivity when NMAs (75%) rather than the medical personnel (61%) administered it, and its specificity was higher with the medical personnel (61%) than with NMAs (55% and 25%). The questionnaire had a higher specificity in literates than illiterates, whereas sensitivity varied considerably. The modified questionnaire translated in a local Indian language had reasonable sensitivity and can be used to screen individuals for PD in epidemiological studies in India. This questionnaire can be administered by NMAs to screen PD and this strategy would reduce manpower costs. Literacy may influence epidemiological estimates when screening PD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1550-1556
Number of pages7
JournalMovement Disorders
Volume20
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2005
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Epidemiology
  • Literacy
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Questionnaire
  • Screening

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology

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