VASA is a specific marker for both normal and malignant human germ cells

Anne Marie Zeeman, Hans Stoop, Marjan Boter, Ad J M Gillis, Diego H. Castrillon, J. Wolter Oosterhuis, Leendert H J Looijenga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

62 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

VASA is so far the only known gene in mammals whose expression is specific for the germ cell lineage. We investigated the presence of VASA mRNA and protein in a series of germ cell tumors of different histologic subtypes and anatomic location, as well as in nongerm cell tumors such as testicular lymphomas and Leydig cell tumors. We detected VASA mRNA (by quantitative RT-PCR) and protein (by immunohistochemical staining) in normal spermatogenesis, seminoma both classic and spermatocytic), carcinoma in situ (the precursor of classic seminoma and nonseminoma), dysgerminomas and gonadoblastoma. VASA immunostaining was relatively weak in seminomas and dysgerminomas compared with spermatocytic seminomas, despite similar mRNA levels suggesting that VASA is regulated in part by post-transcriptional mechanisms. A higher staining intensity compared with the invasive counterparts was observed in the precursor lesions (ie. carcinoma in situ and gonadoblastoma). No VASA mRNA or protein was detectable in nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (such as embryonal carcinoma, teratoma, and yolk sac tumor) and derived cell lines, or nongerm cell tumors such as lymphoma or Leydig cell tumor. These results provide direct evidence that some germ cell tumors retain germ cell characteristics, whereas other tumors of germ cell origin result from differentiation and loss of germ cell identity. Furthermore, these findings suggest that VASA is likely to serve as a useful and highly specific biomarker for germ cell tumors, particularly classic and spermatocytic seminoma/dysgerminoma, including their precursor stages.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)159-166
Number of pages8
JournalLaboratory Investigation
Volume82
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2002

Fingerprint

Seminoma
Germ Cells
Germ Cell and Embryonal Neoplasms
Dysgerminoma
Gonadoblastoma
Leydig Cell Tumor
Messenger RNA
Carcinoma in Situ
Lymphoma
Embryonal Carcinoma
Staining and Labeling
Endodermal Sinus Tumor
Proteins
Teratoma
Cell Lineage
Spermatogenesis
Tumor Cell Line
Mammals
Neoplasms
Biomarkers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine

Cite this

Zeeman, A. M., Stoop, H., Boter, M., Gillis, A. J. M., Castrillon, D. H., Oosterhuis, J. W., & Looijenga, L. H. J. (2002). VASA is a specific marker for both normal and malignant human germ cells. Laboratory Investigation, 82(2), 159-166.

VASA is a specific marker for both normal and malignant human germ cells. / Zeeman, Anne Marie; Stoop, Hans; Boter, Marjan; Gillis, Ad J M; Castrillon, Diego H.; Oosterhuis, J. Wolter; Looijenga, Leendert H J.

In: Laboratory Investigation, Vol. 82, No. 2, 2002, p. 159-166.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Zeeman, AM, Stoop, H, Boter, M, Gillis, AJM, Castrillon, DH, Oosterhuis, JW & Looijenga, LHJ 2002, 'VASA is a specific marker for both normal and malignant human germ cells', Laboratory Investigation, vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 159-166.
Zeeman AM, Stoop H, Boter M, Gillis AJM, Castrillon DH, Oosterhuis JW et al. VASA is a specific marker for both normal and malignant human germ cells. Laboratory Investigation. 2002;82(2):159-166.
Zeeman, Anne Marie ; Stoop, Hans ; Boter, Marjan ; Gillis, Ad J M ; Castrillon, Diego H. ; Oosterhuis, J. Wolter ; Looijenga, Leendert H J. / VASA is a specific marker for both normal and malignant human germ cells. In: Laboratory Investigation. 2002 ; Vol. 82, No. 2. pp. 159-166.
@article{14dedddfb5144262833fe74d120c8231,
title = "VASA is a specific marker for both normal and malignant human germ cells",
abstract = "VASA is so far the only known gene in mammals whose expression is specific for the germ cell lineage. We investigated the presence of VASA mRNA and protein in a series of germ cell tumors of different histologic subtypes and anatomic location, as well as in nongerm cell tumors such as testicular lymphomas and Leydig cell tumors. We detected VASA mRNA (by quantitative RT-PCR) and protein (by immunohistochemical staining) in normal spermatogenesis, seminoma both classic and spermatocytic), carcinoma in situ (the precursor of classic seminoma and nonseminoma), dysgerminomas and gonadoblastoma. VASA immunostaining was relatively weak in seminomas and dysgerminomas compared with spermatocytic seminomas, despite similar mRNA levels suggesting that VASA is regulated in part by post-transcriptional mechanisms. A higher staining intensity compared with the invasive counterparts was observed in the precursor lesions (ie. carcinoma in situ and gonadoblastoma). No VASA mRNA or protein was detectable in nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (such as embryonal carcinoma, teratoma, and yolk sac tumor) and derived cell lines, or nongerm cell tumors such as lymphoma or Leydig cell tumor. These results provide direct evidence that some germ cell tumors retain germ cell characteristics, whereas other tumors of germ cell origin result from differentiation and loss of germ cell identity. Furthermore, these findings suggest that VASA is likely to serve as a useful and highly specific biomarker for germ cell tumors, particularly classic and spermatocytic seminoma/dysgerminoma, including their precursor stages.",
author = "Zeeman, {Anne Marie} and Hans Stoop and Marjan Boter and Gillis, {Ad J M} and Castrillon, {Diego H.} and Oosterhuis, {J. Wolter} and Looijenga, {Leendert H J}",
year = "2002",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "82",
pages = "159--166",
journal = "Laboratory Investigation",
issn = "0023-6837",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - VASA is a specific marker for both normal and malignant human germ cells

AU - Zeeman, Anne Marie

AU - Stoop, Hans

AU - Boter, Marjan

AU - Gillis, Ad J M

AU - Castrillon, Diego H.

AU - Oosterhuis, J. Wolter

AU - Looijenga, Leendert H J

PY - 2002

Y1 - 2002

N2 - VASA is so far the only known gene in mammals whose expression is specific for the germ cell lineage. We investigated the presence of VASA mRNA and protein in a series of germ cell tumors of different histologic subtypes and anatomic location, as well as in nongerm cell tumors such as testicular lymphomas and Leydig cell tumors. We detected VASA mRNA (by quantitative RT-PCR) and protein (by immunohistochemical staining) in normal spermatogenesis, seminoma both classic and spermatocytic), carcinoma in situ (the precursor of classic seminoma and nonseminoma), dysgerminomas and gonadoblastoma. VASA immunostaining was relatively weak in seminomas and dysgerminomas compared with spermatocytic seminomas, despite similar mRNA levels suggesting that VASA is regulated in part by post-transcriptional mechanisms. A higher staining intensity compared with the invasive counterparts was observed in the precursor lesions (ie. carcinoma in situ and gonadoblastoma). No VASA mRNA or protein was detectable in nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (such as embryonal carcinoma, teratoma, and yolk sac tumor) and derived cell lines, or nongerm cell tumors such as lymphoma or Leydig cell tumor. These results provide direct evidence that some germ cell tumors retain germ cell characteristics, whereas other tumors of germ cell origin result from differentiation and loss of germ cell identity. Furthermore, these findings suggest that VASA is likely to serve as a useful and highly specific biomarker for germ cell tumors, particularly classic and spermatocytic seminoma/dysgerminoma, including their precursor stages.

AB - VASA is so far the only known gene in mammals whose expression is specific for the germ cell lineage. We investigated the presence of VASA mRNA and protein in a series of germ cell tumors of different histologic subtypes and anatomic location, as well as in nongerm cell tumors such as testicular lymphomas and Leydig cell tumors. We detected VASA mRNA (by quantitative RT-PCR) and protein (by immunohistochemical staining) in normal spermatogenesis, seminoma both classic and spermatocytic), carcinoma in situ (the precursor of classic seminoma and nonseminoma), dysgerminomas and gonadoblastoma. VASA immunostaining was relatively weak in seminomas and dysgerminomas compared with spermatocytic seminomas, despite similar mRNA levels suggesting that VASA is regulated in part by post-transcriptional mechanisms. A higher staining intensity compared with the invasive counterparts was observed in the precursor lesions (ie. carcinoma in situ and gonadoblastoma). No VASA mRNA or protein was detectable in nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (such as embryonal carcinoma, teratoma, and yolk sac tumor) and derived cell lines, or nongerm cell tumors such as lymphoma or Leydig cell tumor. These results provide direct evidence that some germ cell tumors retain germ cell characteristics, whereas other tumors of germ cell origin result from differentiation and loss of germ cell identity. Furthermore, these findings suggest that VASA is likely to serve as a useful and highly specific biomarker for germ cell tumors, particularly classic and spermatocytic seminoma/dysgerminoma, including their precursor stages.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0036174406&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0036174406&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 82

SP - 159

EP - 166

JO - Laboratory Investigation

JF - Laboratory Investigation

SN - 0023-6837

IS - 2

ER -