Vessel-wall imaging and quantification of flow-mediated dilation using water-selective 3D SSFP-echo

Michael C. Langham, Li C. Cheng, Erin K. Englund, Erica N. Chirico, Emile R. Mohler, Thomas F. Floyd, Felix W. Wehrli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: To introduce a new, efficient method for vessel-wall imaging of carotid and peripheral arteries by means of a flow-sensitive 3D water-selective SSFP-echo pulse sequence. Methods. Periodic applications of RF pulses will generate two transverse steady states, immediately after and before an RF pulse; the latter being referred to as the SSFP-echo. The SSFP-echo signal for water protons in blood is spoiled as a result of moving spins losing phase coherence in the presence of a gradient pulse along the flow direction. Bloch equation simulations were performed over a wide range of velocities to evaluate the flow sensitivity of the SSFP-echo signal. Vessel walls of carotid and femoral and popliteal arteries were imaged at 3 T. In two patients with peripheral artery disease the femoral arteries were imaged bilaterally to demonstrate method's potential to visualize atherosclerotic plaques. The method was also evaluated as a means to measure femoral artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in response to cuff-induced ischemia in four subjects. Results: The SSFP-echo pulse sequence, which does not have a dedicated blood signal suppression preparation, achieved low blood signal permitting discrimination of the carotid and peripheral arterial walls with in-plane spatial resolution ranging from 0.5 to 0.69 mm and slice thickness of 2 to 3 mm, i.e. comparable to conventional 2D vessel-wall imaging techniques. The results of the simulations were in good agreement with analytical solution and observations for both vascular territories examined. Scan time ranged from 2.5 to 5 s per slice yielding a contrast-to-noise ratio between the vessel wall and lumen from 3.5 to 17. Mean femoral FMD in the four subjects was 9%, in good qualitative agreement with literature values. Conclusions: Water-selective 3D SSFP-echo pulse sequence is a potential alternative to 2D vessel-wall imaging. The proposed method is fast, robust, applicable to a wide range of flow velocities, and straightforward to implement.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100
JournalJournal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Volume15
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2013

Fingerprint

Dilatation
Femoral Artery
Water
Carotid Arteries
Popliteal Artery
Peripheral Arterial Disease
Atherosclerotic Plaques
Thigh
Blood Vessels
Noise
Protons
Ischemia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Family Practice

Cite this

Vessel-wall imaging and quantification of flow-mediated dilation using water-selective 3D SSFP-echo. / Langham, Michael C.; Cheng, Li C.; Englund, Erin K.; Chirico, Erica N.; Mohler, Emile R.; Floyd, Thomas F.; Wehrli, Felix W.

In: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, Vol. 15, No. 1, 100, 01.11.2013.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Langham, Michael C. ; Cheng, Li C. ; Englund, Erin K. ; Chirico, Erica N. ; Mohler, Emile R. ; Floyd, Thomas F. ; Wehrli, Felix W. / Vessel-wall imaging and quantification of flow-mediated dilation using water-selective 3D SSFP-echo. In: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance. 2013 ; Vol. 15, No. 1.
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abstract = "Background: To introduce a new, efficient method for vessel-wall imaging of carotid and peripheral arteries by means of a flow-sensitive 3D water-selective SSFP-echo pulse sequence. Methods. Periodic applications of RF pulses will generate two transverse steady states, immediately after and before an RF pulse; the latter being referred to as the SSFP-echo. The SSFP-echo signal for water protons in blood is spoiled as a result of moving spins losing phase coherence in the presence of a gradient pulse along the flow direction. Bloch equation simulations were performed over a wide range of velocities to evaluate the flow sensitivity of the SSFP-echo signal. Vessel walls of carotid and femoral and popliteal arteries were imaged at 3 T. In two patients with peripheral artery disease the femoral arteries were imaged bilaterally to demonstrate method's potential to visualize atherosclerotic plaques. The method was also evaluated as a means to measure femoral artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in response to cuff-induced ischemia in four subjects. Results: The SSFP-echo pulse sequence, which does not have a dedicated blood signal suppression preparation, achieved low blood signal permitting discrimination of the carotid and peripheral arterial walls with in-plane spatial resolution ranging from 0.5 to 0.69 mm and slice thickness of 2 to 3 mm, i.e. comparable to conventional 2D vessel-wall imaging techniques. The results of the simulations were in good agreement with analytical solution and observations for both vascular territories examined. Scan time ranged from 2.5 to 5 s per slice yielding a contrast-to-noise ratio between the vessel wall and lumen from 3.5 to 17. Mean femoral FMD in the four subjects was 9{\%}, in good qualitative agreement with literature values. Conclusions: Water-selective 3D SSFP-echo pulse sequence is a potential alternative to 2D vessel-wall imaging. The proposed method is fast, robust, applicable to a wide range of flow velocities, and straightforward to implement.",
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AB - Background: To introduce a new, efficient method for vessel-wall imaging of carotid and peripheral arteries by means of a flow-sensitive 3D water-selective SSFP-echo pulse sequence. Methods. Periodic applications of RF pulses will generate two transverse steady states, immediately after and before an RF pulse; the latter being referred to as the SSFP-echo. The SSFP-echo signal for water protons in blood is spoiled as a result of moving spins losing phase coherence in the presence of a gradient pulse along the flow direction. Bloch equation simulations were performed over a wide range of velocities to evaluate the flow sensitivity of the SSFP-echo signal. Vessel walls of carotid and femoral and popliteal arteries were imaged at 3 T. In two patients with peripheral artery disease the femoral arteries were imaged bilaterally to demonstrate method's potential to visualize atherosclerotic plaques. The method was also evaluated as a means to measure femoral artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in response to cuff-induced ischemia in four subjects. Results: The SSFP-echo pulse sequence, which does not have a dedicated blood signal suppression preparation, achieved low blood signal permitting discrimination of the carotid and peripheral arterial walls with in-plane spatial resolution ranging from 0.5 to 0.69 mm and slice thickness of 2 to 3 mm, i.e. comparable to conventional 2D vessel-wall imaging techniques. The results of the simulations were in good agreement with analytical solution and observations for both vascular territories examined. Scan time ranged from 2.5 to 5 s per slice yielding a contrast-to-noise ratio between the vessel wall and lumen from 3.5 to 17. Mean femoral FMD in the four subjects was 9%, in good qualitative agreement with literature values. Conclusions: Water-selective 3D SSFP-echo pulse sequence is a potential alternative to 2D vessel-wall imaging. The proposed method is fast, robust, applicable to a wide range of flow velocities, and straightforward to implement.

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