Volatilization of toxaphene from Lakes Michigan and Superior

R. R. James, J. G. McDonald, D. M. Symonik, D. L. Swackhamer, R. A. Hites

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

26 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The pesticide toxaphene was used extensively on cotton in the southern United States until its use was restricted in 1982. It was previously reported that the upper Great Lakes have received toxaphene by gas absorption following long-range transport from the south and are currently saturated with respect to toxaphene. However, the rate of loss of toxaphene from Lakes Michigan and Superior had been estimated using sparse or estimated data, and thus, these estimates had high uncertainties. For this investigation, samples were collected to provide extensive data on air, water, and sediment concentrations of toxaphene for the upper Great Lakes for the period 1997-98. These data were used to calculate the annual and seasonal fluxes of toxaphene from water to air and sediment. Lake Superior is 200-1000% saturated with toxaphene, and Lake Michigan is 200-500% saturated. It seems clear that both lakes will outgas toxaphene into the atmosphere for some considerable time in the future, and Lake Superior, because of its generally lower water temperatures and higher toxaphene concentration, will outgas toxaphene even longer than will Lake Michigan.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3653-3660
Number of pages8
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Volume35
Issue number18
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 15 2001

Fingerprint

Toxaphene
volatilization
Vaporization
Lakes
lake
Sediments
Water
Gas absorption
air
long range transport
Pesticides
Air
sediment
Cotton
cotton
water temperature
pesticide
Fluxes
water

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry

Cite this

Volatilization of toxaphene from Lakes Michigan and Superior. / James, R. R.; McDonald, J. G.; Symonik, D. M.; Swackhamer, D. L.; Hites, R. A.

In: Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 35, No. 18, 15.09.2001, p. 3653-3660.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

James, R. R. ; McDonald, J. G. ; Symonik, D. M. ; Swackhamer, D. L. ; Hites, R. A. / Volatilization of toxaphene from Lakes Michigan and Superior. In: Environmental Science and Technology. 2001 ; Vol. 35, No. 18. pp. 3653-3660.
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